Sunday, July 24, 2016

73 Works by the Great Artists, following Theseus, Part 1, The Minotaur

Theseus

Aegeus (1282–1234 BC), one of the primordial kings of Athens,. Still without a male heir, Aegeus asked the oracle at Delphi for advice. Her cryptic words were "Do not loosen the bulging mouth of the wineskin until you have reached the height of Athens, lest you die of grief." 


John Collier, (1850–1934)
The priestess of the oracle at ancient Delphi, Greece, c. 1891
Oil on canvas
160 × 80 cm (63 × 31.5 in)
Art Gallery of South Australia

The Honourable John Maler Collier OBE RP ROI (27 January 1850 – 11 April 1934) was a leading English artist, and an author. He painted in the Pre-Raphaelite style, and was one of the most prominent portrait painters of his generation. Both his marriages were to daughters of Thomas Henry Huxley. He studied painting at the Munich Academy where he enrolled on 14 April 1875 (Register: 3145) at the age of 25. More


Kodros Painter
Themis and Aegeus
Attic red-figure kylix, 440–430 BC
From Vulci.
Altes Museum

Aegeus did not understand the prophecy and was disappointed. This puzzling oracle forced Aegeus to visit Pittheus, king of Troezen, who was famous for his wisdom and skill at expounding oracles. Pittheus understood the prophecy and introduced Aegeus to his daughter, Aethra, when Aegeus was drunk. 


Angelica Kauffman, R.A. (1741-1807).
Athena and Aethra (?)
Oil on canvas
173.99cm by 150.5cm.

Angelica Kauffman, R.A. (1741-1807), see below

But following the instructions of Athena in a dream, Aethra left the sleeping Aegeus and waded across to the island of Sphairia that lay close to Troezen's shore. There she poured a libation to Sphairos (Pelops' charioteer) and Poseidon, and was possessed by the sea god in the night. The mix gave Theseus a combination of divine as well as mortal characteristics in his natures. After Aethra became pregnant, Aegeus decided to return to Athens. Before leaving, however, he buried his sandals and sword under a huge rock and told Aethra that when their son grew up, he should move the rock, if he were heroic enough, and take the tokens for himself as evidence of his royal parentage. In Athens, Aegeus was joined by Medea, who had left Corinth after slaughtering the children she had borne, and had taken Aegeus as her new consort. Priestess and consort together represented the old order in Athens.


Gustave Moreau, (6 Apr 1826 - 18 Apr 1898)
Ariane et Thésée, c. 1886
Oil on Canvas
1470 x 1119
Paris, musée Gustave Moreau

Gustave Moreau (French: [mɔʁo]; 6 April 1826 – 18 April 1898) was a French Symbolist painter whose main emphasis was the illustration of biblical and mythological figures. Moreau was born in Paris. His father, Louis Jean Marie Moreau, was an architect, who recognized his talent. His first painting was a Pietà which is now located in the cathedral at Angoulême. He showed A Scene from the Song of Songs and The Death of Darius in the Salon of 1853. In 1853 he contributed Athenians with the Minotaur and Moses Putting Off his Sandals within Sight of the Promised Land to the Great Exhibition.

Moreau became a professor at Paris' École des Beaux-Arts in 1891 and among his many students were fauvist painters Henri Matisse and Georges Rouault. Jules Flandrin, Theodor Pallady and Léon Printemps also studied with Moreau.


During his lifetime, Moreau produced more than 8,000 paintings, watercolors and drawings, many of which are on display in Paris' Musée national Gustave Moreau at 14 rue de la Rochefoucauld (9th arrondissement). The museum is in his former workshop, and began operation in 1903. André Breton famously used to "haunt" the museum and regarded Moreau as a precursor of Surrealism. More


Photo: Michael Holford
Theseus lifts the boulder while his mother Aethra looks on
Roman relief, first century A.D.

Thus Theseus was raised in his mother's land. When Theseus grew up and became a brave young man, he moved the rock and recovered his father's tokens. 


Antonio Balestra, (1666–1740) 
Theseus Discovering his Father's Sword
Oil on canvas
Height: 287 cm (113 in). Width: 159 cm (62.6 in)

Antonio Balestra (12 August 1666 – 21 April 1740) was an Italian painter of the Rococo period. Born in Verona, he first apprenticed there with Giovanni Zeffio. By 1690 he moved to Venice, where he worked for three years under Antonio Bellucci, then moved to Bologna and then to paint in Carlo Maratta's workshop in Rome. In 1694, he won a prize from the Accademia di San Luca. He later painted both in Verona and Venice; although his influence was stronger in the mainland. More

His mother then told him the truth about his father's identity and that he must take the sword and sandals back to king Aegeus to claim his birthright. To journey to Athens, Theseus could choose to go by sea (which was the safe way) or by land, following a dangerous path around the Saronic Gulf, where he would encounter a string of six entrances to the Underworld, each guarded by a chthonic enemy. Young, brave, and ambitious, Theseus decided to go alone by the land route and defeated a great many bandits along the way.




At the first site, which was Epidaurus, sacred to Apollo and the healer Asclepius, Theseus turned the tables on the chthonic bandit, Periphetes, the Club Bearer, who beat his opponents into the Earth, and took from him the stout staff that often identifies Theseus in vase-paintings.


Unknown
Theseus and Sinis


At the Isthmian entrance to the Underworld was a robber named Sinis, often called "Pityokamptes" ("he who bends Pinetrees"). He would capture travelers, tie them between two pine trees that were bent down to the ground, and then let the trees go, tearing his victims apart. Theseus killed him by his own method. He then became intimate with Sinis's daughter, Perigune, fathering the child Melanippus.


: Theseus and the Crommyonian Sow
Terracotta from the island of Melos, ca. 460 BC.
Staatliche Antikensammlungen, Bavaria

Willem van Herp I, (Antwerp 1613-1677) 
The hunt for the wild boar 
oil on copper 
66.8 x 92 cm. 

Willem van Herp I, Antwerp 1612-1677
THE CALYDONIAN BOAR HUNT
oil on copper
30 1/4 by 39 3/4 in., 76.8 by 101 cm.

Willem van Herp (1614–1677) was a Flemish Baroque painter specializing in religious paintings and small cabinet paintings of "low-life" genre scenes. For a long time Willem van Herp was believed to have been a pupil of Peter Paul Rubens. Even though he was not his pupil he did borrow many of Rubens' motifs and touched up copies after Rubens for the art dealer Matthijs Musson. He was listed as an independent master in the Guild of St. Luke beginning in 1637. He spent his entire career in Antwerp. He was the master of Norbertus van Herp and Melchior Hamers More

In another deed north of the Isthmus, at a place called Crommyon, he killed an enormous pig, the Crommyonian Sow, bred by an old crone named Phaea. Some versions name the sow herself as Phaea. 


 Euphronios, potter; Onesimos, painter
 Sciron beaten by Theseus. 
 Latium.
H. 9.6 cm (3 ¾ in.), Diam. 39.9 cm (15 ½ in.), W. 49 cm (19 ¼ in.)
Louvre Museum 

Near Megara, an elderly robber named Sciron forced travellers along the narrow cliff-face pathway to wash his feet. While they knelt, he kicked them off the cliff behind them, where they were eaten by a sea monster (or, in some versions, a giant turtle). Theseus pushed him off the cliff.

Aison
Theseus fights Cercyon, circa 430 BC
Red-figure ceramic
National Archaeological Museum of Spain

Theseus and Sciron
JC Andrä: "Greek heroic legends for youth processed"
Berlin: Verlag von Neufeld & Henius, 1902


Another of these enemies was Cercyon, king at the holy site of Eleusis, who challenged passers-by to a wrestling match and, when he had beaten them, killed them. Theseus beat Cercyon at wrestling and then killed him instead. Cercyon was a "year-King", who was required to do an annual battle for his life, for the good of his kingdom, and was succeeded by the victor. Theseus overturned this archaic religious rite by refusing to be sacrificed.


Krut, Ansel (b.1959)
The Bed of Procrustes
Oil on copper

Ansel Krut (born 1959), Cape Town, South Africa is a painter who lives and works in London, United Kingdom. Ansel graduated with an MA in Painting from the Royal College of Art in 1986, after which he was awarded the Abbey Major scholarship to the British School in Rome. He attended the Cité Internationale des Arts, Paris (1982-1983), and completed his BA in Fine Art at the University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (1979-1982). More

The last bandit was Procrustes the Stretcher, who had two beds, one of which he offered to passers-by in the plain of Eleusis. He then made them fit into it, either by stretching them or by cutting off their feet. Since he had two beds of different lengths, no one would fit. Theseus turned the tables on Procrustes, cutting off his legs and decapitating him with his own axe.


Kerstiaen de Keuninck (Belgian, 1560–1633)
Theseus on the road to Athens
Oil on panel
26.7 x 40.6 cm. (10.5 x 16 in.)

When Theseus arrived at Athens, he did not reveal his true identity immediately. Aegeus gave him hospitality but was suspicious of the young, powerful stranger's intentions. Aegeus's wife Medea recognized Theseus immediately as Aegeus' son and worried that Theseus would be chosen as heir to Aegeus' kingdom instead of her son Medus. She tried to arrange to have Theseus killed by asking him to capture the Marathonian Bull, an emblem of Cretan power.

On the way to Marathon, Theseus took shelter from a storm in the hut of an ancient woman named Hecale. She swore to make a sacrifice to Zeus if Theseus were successful in capturing the bull. Theseus did capture the bull, but when he returned to Hecale's hut, she was dead. In her honor Theseus gave her name to one of the demes of Attica, making its inhabitants in a sense her adopted children.


Charles-André Vanloo, called Carle Van Loo (France, 1705-1765)
Theseus Taming the Bull of Marathon, (study)circa 1745
Oil on canvas
Height: 114 cm (44.88 in.), Width: 220 cm (86.61 in.)
Musée Fabre (France - Montpellier)


Charles-André Vanloo, called Carle Van Loo (France, 1705-1765)
Theseus Taming the Bull of Marathon, circa 1732-1734
Oil on canvas
Height: 114 cm (44.88 in.), Width: 220 cm (86.61 in.)
Musée des Beaux-Arts et d'Archéologie de Besançon  (France - Besançon)

Charles-André Vanloo, called Carle Van Loo (France, 1705-1765)
Theseus Taming the Bull of Marathoncirca 1744-17454
Oil on canvas
Height: 350 cm (137.8 in.), Width: 700 cm (275.59 in.)
Musée des Beaux-Arts de Nice (France - Nice)

Charles-André Vanloo, called Carle Van Loo (France, 1705-1765)
Theseus Taming the Bull of Marathon, circa 1730
Oil on canvas
26 x 58 in. (66.04 x 147.32 cm)
Los Angeles County Museum of Art

Charles-André Vanloo, called Carle Van Loo (France, 1705-1765)
Theseus Taming the Bull of Marathon, circa 1745
Oil on canvas
Height: 78 cm (30.71 in.), Width: 158 cm (62.2 in.)
The Pushkin State Museum of Fine Arts  (Russian Federation - Moscow)

Carle or Charles-André van Loo (15 February 1705 – 15 July 1765) was a French subject painter, son of the painter Louis-Abraham van Loo, a younger brother of Jean-Baptiste van Loo and grandson of Jacob van Loo. He was the most famous member of a successful dynasty of painters of Dutch origin. His oeuvre includes every category: religion, history painting, mythology, portraiture, allegory, and genre scenes. More


Jean-Hippolyte Flandrin (1809–1864)
Theseus Recognized by his Father, c. 1832
Oil on canvas
45.25 × 57.5 in (114.9 × 146.1 cm)
École nationale supérieure des Beaux-Arts


Jean-Hippolyte Flandrin (23 March 1809 – 21 March 1864) was a 19th-century French painter. From an early age, Flandrin showed interest in the arts and a career as a painter. Hippolyte was the second of three sons, all of whom were painters in some aspect. 

Hippolyte and spent some time at Lyon, saving to leave for Paris in 1829 and study under Louis Hersent. Eventually, he settled in the studio of Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres, who became not only his instructor but their friend for life. At first, Hippolyte struggled as a poor artist. However, in 1832, he won the Prix de Rome for his painting Recognition of Theseus by his Father. This prestigious art scholarship meant that he was no longer limited by his poverty.

Upon his return to Paris in 1856, Flandrin received a commission from the chapel of St John in the church of St Séverin. As a result, his reputation became even more impressive, virtually guaranteeing him continuous employment for the rest of his life.


In 1853, Flandrin was elected to the Académie des Beaux-Arts. In 1863, his failing health, made worse by his hard work and extended exposure to the damp and draughts of churches, induced him to visit Italy again, where he died of smallpox in Rome on 21 March 1864. More

When Theseus returned victorious to Athens, where he sacrificed the Bull, Medea tried to poison him. At the last second, Aegeus recognized the sandals and the sword, and knocked the poisoned wine cup from Theseus's hand. Thus father and son were reunited, and Medea, it was said, fled to Asia.


Sir William Russell Flint (1880 – 1969)
Medea, Theseus and Aegeus (1910)


Sir William Russell Flint (4 April 1880 – 30 December 1969) was a Scottish artist and illustrator who was known especially for his watercolour paintings of women. He also worked in oils, tempera, and printmaking. He was born in Edinburgh then educated at Daniel Stewart's College and Edinburgh Institution. From 1894 to 1900 Flint apprenticed as a lithographic draughtsman while taking classes at the Royal Institute of Art, Edinburgh. From 1900 to 1902 he worked as a medical illustrator in London while studying part-time at Heatherley's Art School. He furthered his art education by studying independently at the British Museum. 


Flint was elected president of Britain’s Royal Society of Painters in Watercolours (now the Royal Watercolour Society) in 1936 to 1956, and knighted in 1947. More

When Theseus appeared in the town, his reputation had preceded him, having travelled along the notorious coastal road from Troezen and slain some of the most feared bandits there. It was not long before the Pallantides' hopes of succeeding the apparently childless Aegeus would be lost if they did not get rid of Theseus (the Pallantides were the sons of Pallas and nephews of King Aegeus, who were then living at the royal court in the sanctuary of Delphic Apollo). So they set a trap for him. One band of them would march on the town from one side while another lay in wait near a place called Gargettus in ambush. The plan was that after Theseus, Aegeus, and the palace guards had been forced out the front, the other half would surprise them from behind. However, Theseus was not fooled. Informed of the plan by a herald named Leos, he crept out of the city at midnight and surprised the Pallantides. "Theseus then fell suddenly upon the party lying in ambush, and slew them all. Thereupon the party with Pallas dispersed."


Master of the Campana Cassoni 
The Loves of Pasiphaë, 1510s
Oil on poplar panel, 
69 x 155 cm
Musée du Petit Palais, Avignon

The History of the Minotaur from Cassone Paintings,16th century.
0.69 m x 1.82 m, 
Musée du Petit Palais Avignon

1) King Minos of Crete is assumed to sacrifice a white Bull sent by Poseidon. 2) Minos thinks that it is better to sacrifice another bull which is killed and 3) sacrificed. The punishment 4, 5 ): Poseidon caused Minos's wife Pasiphae to fall in love with the bull. The result was her son Minotaur.


Gustave Moreau
Pasiphae and the Bull, circa 1876-1880
Watercolor
1131 x 572 • 171 KB
Musée Gustave Moreau  (France - Paris) 

Gustave Moreau (6 April 1826 – 18 April 1898) was a French Symbolist painter whose main emphasis was the illustration of biblical and mythological figures. As a painter, Moreau appealed to the imaginations of some Symbolist writers and artists. More





Pablo Picasso
Dora and the Minotaur (1936),
Coloured pencils and ink on parchment paper
73.5 x 40.5 cm
Collection of Musée Picasso, Paris, France. 


Pablo Ruiz y Picasso, also known as Pablo Picasso (25 October 1881 – 8 April 1973), was a Spanish painter, sculptor, printmaker, ceramicist, stage designer, poet and playwright who spent most of his adult life in France. Regarded as one of the greatest and most influential artists of the 20th century, he is known for co-founding the Cubist movement, the invention of constructed sculpture, the co-invention of collage, and for the wide variety of styles that he helped develop and explore. One of his most famous works are the proto-Cubist Les Demoiselles d'Avignon (1907).

Picasso demonstrated extraordinary artistic talent in his early years, painting in a naturalistic manner through his childhood and adolescence. During the first decade of the 20th century, his style changed as he experimented with different theories, techniques, and ideas. His work is often categorized into periods. While the names of many of his later periods are debated, the most commonly accepted periods in his work are the Blue Period (1901–1904), the Rose Period (1904–1906), the African-influenced Period (1907–1909), Analytic Cubism (1909–1912), and Synthetic Cubism (1912–1919), also referred to as the Crystal period.


Exceptionally prolific throughout the course of his long life, Picasso achieved universal renown and immense fortune for his revolutionary artistic accomplishments, and became one of the best-known figures in 20th-century art. More

Ansel Krut (born 1959)
Pasiphae and the Bull
Oil on copper
23x28 cm 

Ansel Krut (born 1959), see above

Pasiphae wife of the King of Crete Minos, suckling the baby Minotaur
Red-figure vase, produced in Etruria, ca. 340 BCE.

Pasiphaë, wife of King Minos of Crete, had several children before the Minotaur. The eldest of these, Androgeos, set sail for Athens to take part in the Pan-Athenian games, which were held there every four years. Being strong and skillful, he did very well, winning some events outright. He soon became a crowd favorite, much to the resentment of the Pallantides, and they assassinated him, incurring the wrath of Minos.


MASTER of the Cassoni Campana, Italian painter (active 1500-1525 in Florence)
The Taking of Athens by Minos, King of Crete, c. 1510s
Oil on poplar panel
69 x 155 cm
Musée du Petit Palais, Avignon

When King Minos had heard of what befell his son, he ordered the Cretan fleet to set sail for Athens. Minos asked Aegeus for his son's assassins, and if they were to be handed to him, the town would be spared. However, not knowing who the assassins were, King Aegeus surrendered the whole town to Minos' mercy. 


Jean-François-Pierre Peyron (1744–1814)
Athenian Girls Drawing Lots to Determine which among them Shall Be Sent to Crete for Sacrifice to the Minotaur
English Heritage, The Wellington Collection, Apsley House

His retribution was that, at the end of every Great Year (seven solar years), the seven most courageous youths and the seven most beautiful maidens were to board a boat and be sent as tribute to Crete,  to be sacrificed to the Minotaur, the offspring from the zoophilic encounter of Minos' wife Pasiphae with a certain bull that the king refused to sacrifice to Poseidon, which he had placed within a labyrinth he commanded his architect Daedalus to build.


Gustave Moreau
Athenians Delivered to the Minotaur, 1855


Jean-Baptiste Peytavin
Seven Athenians Delivered from the Minotaur, 1808
295 x 369 cm
Museum of Fine Arts of Chambéry

On the third occasion, Theseus volunteered to slay the monster to stop this horror. He took the place of one of the youths and set off with a black sail, promising to his father, Aegeus, that if successful he would return with a white sail. Like the others, Theseus was stripped of his weapons when they sailed. 


Sir Joshua Reynolds, P.R.A. 
Ariadne 
Oil on canvas 
30 x 25 in. (76.2 x 63.5 cm.)

Sir Joshua Reynolds RA FRS FRSA (16 July 1723 – 23 February 1792) was an influential eighteenth-century English painter, specialising in portraits. He promoted the "Grand Style" in painting which depended on idealization of the imperfect. He was a founder and first president of the Royal Academy of Arts, and was knighted by George III in 1769. More


John William Waterhouse, 1849-1898
Ariadne, c. 1898
Oil, canvas
151.13 x 91.12 cm

John William Waterhouse (April 6, 1849 – February 10, 1917) was an English painter known for working in the Pre-Raphaelite style. He worked several decades after the breakup of the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood, which had seen its heyday in the mid-nineteenth century, leading to his sobriquet "the modern Pre-Raphaelite". Borrowing stylistic influences not only from the earlier Pre-Raphaelites but also from his contemporaries, the Impressionists, his artworks were known for their depictions of women from both ancient Greek mythology and Arthurian legend.

Born in Italy to English parents who were both painters, he later moved to London, where he enrolled in the Royal Academy of Art. He soon began exhibiting at their annual summer exhibitions, focusing on the creation of large canvas works depicting scenes from the daily life and mythology of ancient Greece. Later on in his career he came to embrace the Pre-Raphaelite style of painting despite the fact that it had gone out of fashion in the British art scene several decades before. More

John Raphael Smith, British, 1752–1812
Ariadne and Theseus, 1788
Mezzotint with printed color and hand coloring
27 7/8 x 19 1/2 in (70.8 x 49.5 cm)
The Fralin | University of Virginia Art Museum

John Raphael Smith (1751 – 2 March 1812) was an English painter and mezzotint engraver. Baptized on 25 May 1751, Smith was apprenticed to a linen-draper in Derby, and afterwards pursued the same business in London, adding to his income by producing miniatures. He then turned to engraving and executed his plate of the Public Ledger, which had great popularity

He reproduced some forty works of Reynolds, some of which ranked among the masterpieces of mezzotint, and he was appointed engraver to the Prince of Wales. Adding to his artistic pursuits an extensive connexion as a print-dealer and publisher, he would soon have acquired wealth had it not been for his dissipated habits. He was a boon companion of George Morland, whose figure-pieces he excellently mezzotinted.


He painted subject-pictures such as the Unsuspecting Maid, Inattention and the Moralist, exhibiting in the Royal Academy from 1779 to 1790. Upon the decline of his business as a printseller he made a tour through the north and midland counties of England, producing much hasty and indifferent work, and settled in Doncaster. More


NICOLO BAMBINI, (ITALIAN, 1651 - 1736)
Ariadne and Theseus
Oil on canvas
37.00 in. (93.98 cm.) (height) by 50.00 in. (127.00 cm.) (width)

Niccolò Bambini (1651–1736) was an Italian painter of the late-Renaissance and early-Baroque periods. He was born in Venice, and first studied under Giulio Mazzoni. He later moved to Rome, where he became a pupil of Carlo Maratti. He painted for the church of San Stefano soon after his return from Rome. More

On his arrival in Crete, Ariadne, King Minos' daughter, fell in love with Theseus and, on the advice of Daedalus, gave him a ball of thread (a clew), so he could find his way out of the Labyrinth. That night, Ariadne escorted Theseus to the Labyrinth, and Theseus promised that if he returned from the Labyrinth he would take Ariadne with him. 


Charles de La Fosse. French 1829-1910
Theseus and Ariadne. 19th.century.
oil/canvas.

Charles de La Fosse. French 1829-1910, see below



"Theseus-Mosaic", floor mosaic from a Roman villa

56,5 x 58cm

Right, Ariadne hands Theseus the ball of wool to help him , Center, Theseus kills the Minotaur; top,Theseus and Ariadne aboard ship: Right, grieving Ariadne


Master of the Campana Cassoni, 1500-1525
Theseus and the Minotaur, c. 1500 and 1525
Oil on panel
69 × 155 cm
Musee du Petit Palais, Avignon
This panel belonged to a cassone (marriage chest)

1) Minotaur, the son of the white Bull and Pasiphae, attacks and kills Cretans (In the Medieval time the Minotaur is represented as a Centaur while the ancient Greeks showed him as a man with the head of a bull). 2) The Minotaur is captured with the help of Poseidon. 3) The ship with Theseus arrives. Interesting the ship carries 7 shields with the symbols representing the Medici. 4) Theseus meets Ariadne and her sister Phaedra. 5) Ariadne gives a ball of thread to Theseus (who is dressed like a knight) to be able to return from the Labyrinth 6). Theseus goes to the Labyrinth 7) He kills inside the Labyrinth the Minotaur, Ariadne and her sister are waiting in front of the Labyrinth 8) Theseus with Ariadne and her sister leave Crete. 9) Their ship with the black sail (Theseus too happy has forgotten to replace it by a white sail) leaves Crete. More

Master of the Campana Cassoni, 1500-1525
Theseus and the Minotaur, c. 1500 and 1525
Detail (5)

Master of the Campana Cassoni, 1500-1525
Theseus and the Minotaur, c. 1500 and 1525
Detail (7)

Detail the painting of the Master of the Cassoni Campana - painter of French origin working in Florence at 16 iéme - Watching are Ariane and Phedre, the two daughters of King Minos, Theseus kills the Minotaur in the labyrinth

MASTER of the Cassoni Campana, (active 1500-1525 in Florence), French or Italian painter named after four panels of a cassone purchased for the Louvre by Napoleon III from the collection of Giampietro Campana. He is also known as Master of Tavarnelle or Master of Ovid. It is assumed by some art historian that he was a pupil or collaborator of Filippino Lippi. More

As soon as Theseus entered the Labyrinth, he tied one end of the ball of string to the door post and brandished his sword which he had kept hidden from the guards inside his tunic. Theseus followed Daedalus' instructions given to Ariadne; go forwards, always down and never left or right. Theseus came to the heart of the Labyrinth and also upon the sleeping Minotaur. 


Edward Burne-Jones (1833–1898)
Theseus and the Minotaur in the Labyrinth, c. 1861
Pencil, brown wash, pen and ink on paper.
w255 x h261 mm
Birmingham Museum and Art Gallery

Sir Edward Coley Burne-Jones, 1st Baronet ARA (28 August 1833 – 17 June 1898) was a British artist and designer closely associated with the later phase of the Pre-Raphaelite movement. Burne-Jones was closely involved in the rejuvenation of the tradition of stained glass art in Britain. His early paintings show the heavy inspiration of Dante Gabriel Rossetti, but by the 1860s Burne-Jones was discovering his own artistic "voice". In 1877, he was persuaded to show eight oil paintings at the Grosvenor Gallery (a new rival to the Royal Academy). These included The Beguiling of Merlin. The timing was right, and he was taken up as a herald and star of the new Aesthetic Movement. More

Henry Fuseli (1741–1825)
Ariadne Watching the Struggle of Theseus with the Minotaur, c. 1815 to 1820
Brown wash, oil, white gouache, white chalk, gum and graphite on moderately thick, moderately textured, beige wove paper
Height: 616 mm (24.25 in). Width: 502 mm (19.76 in).
Yale Center for British Art

Henry Fuseli (1741–1825)
Ariadne Watching the Struggle of Theseus with the Minotaur, c. 1815 to 1820
Detail

Henry Fuseli (German: Johann Heinrich Füssli; 7 February 1741 – 17 April 1825) was a Swiss painter, draughtsman and writer on art who spent much of his life in Britain. Many of his works, such as The Nightmare, deal with supernatural subject-matter. He painted works for John Boydell's Shakespeare Gallery, and created his own "Milton Gallery". He held the posts of Professor of Painting and Keeper at the Royal Academy. His style had a considerable influence on many younger British artists, including William Blake. More


Paul Reid
Theseus and the Minotaur, (Version 1)
Oil on canvas, 2006
71.1 x 81.3cm

Paul Reid has been painting mythological subjects left untouched for more than a century. While his contemporaries, crushed by the weight of art history, have chosen the postmodern way out, Reid has opted to play Atlas and shoulder the burden – a decision which, in art critical terms, makes him as much a freak of nature as the prodigies he depicts. More


William Russell Flint. Scottish. 1880-1969
Theseus killing the Minotaur. 1912
watercolor 

Sir William Russell Flint (4 April 1880 – 30 December 1969) was a Scottish artist and illustrator who was known especially for his watercolour paintings of women. He also worked in oils, tempera, and printmaking. He was born in Edinburgh then educated at Daniel Stewart's College and Edinburgh Institution. From 1894 to 1900 Flint apprenticed as a lithographic draughtsman while taking classes at the Royal Institute of Art, Edinburgh. From 1900 to 1902 he worked as a medical illustrator in London while studying part-time at Heatherley's Art School. He furthered his art education by studying independently at the British Museum. 


Flint was elected president of Britain’s Royal Society of Painters in Watercolours (now the Royal Watercolour Society) in 1936 to 1956, and knighted in 1947. More


Giovanni Battista Cima da Conegliano (1459-1460 - 1517-1518)
Theseus Killing the Minotaur, c. 1505

Height: 87.4 mm (3.44 in). Width: 73.5 mm (2.89 in).
Museo Poldi Pezzoli


Giovanni Battista Cima, also called Cima da Conegliano (c. 1459 – c. 1517) was an Italian Renaissance painter, who mostly worked in Venice. He can be considered part of the Venetian school, though he was also influenced by Antonello da Messina, in the emphasis he gives to landscape backgrounds and the tranquil atmosphere of his works. Once formed, his style did not change greatly. He mostly painted religious subjects, often on a small scale for homes rather than churches, but also a few, mostly small, mythological ones, which have a special charm.


He often repeated popular subjects in different versions with slight variations, including his Madonnas and Saint Jerome in a Landscape. His paintings of the Madonna and Child include several variations of a composition that have a standing infant Jesus, which in turn are repeated several times. More

The beast awoke and a tremendous fight then occurred. Theseus overpowered the Minotaur with his strength and stabbed the beast in the throat with his sword.


Francois Joseph Heim. French.1787-1865.
Theseus the Victor of the Minotaur, c.  1807
oil on canvas.


The painting is now hanging on a wall in the Museo Nazionale (National Museum) in Naples, but once it was actually part of a wall in a Pompeian house, the House of Gavius Rufus (VII.2.16). Its dimensions are .97 m. in height and .88 m. in width.

The moment after the slaying of the Minotaur is depicted . The Minoatur is dead. Theseus stands in the center holding his club. The children, who thought they would not come back, express their joy and relief. And finally a group of women, a man, and a child look on from the right side of the painting.

This is a fresco, a painting made on the damp plaster of a wall. After excavation, this picture was cut from the wall to which it originally belonged. More


After decapitating the beast, Theseus used the string to escape the Labyrinth and managed to escape with all of the young Athenians and Ariadne as well as her younger sister Phaedra. 


Charles-Édouard Chaise
Theseus victor of the Minotaur, circa 1791
Oil on canvas

Charles-Édouard Chaise, 1759-1798
Theseus victor of the Minotaur, circa 1791
Oil on canvas
Detail

Charles-Édouard Chaise (1759, Paris - 1798, Fontainebleau) was a French neoclassical painter. His father was a painter, art dealer and member of the Académie de Saint-Luc. Charles-Edouard studied under Jean Bonvoisin in 1775, then under Jean-Jacques Lagrenée, before winning second prize in the 1778 prix de Rome with David condemning to death the Amalekite bringing him Saul's diadem. More


Benedetto Gennari II. Italian. 1635-1715
Theseus with Ariadne and Phaedra the daughters of King Minos, c.  1702
Oil on canvas

Benedetto Gennari II (October 19, 1633 – December 9, 1715) was an Italian painter active during the Baroque period. He trained at the workshop of the celebrated master, Guercino, hence his style was always very close to that of his teacher. Upon Guercino's death, Gennari inherited his studio which he ran with his brother Cesare.

With a restless spirit, Gennari traveled to Paris in March 1672 to work for the court of King Louis XIV. The French nobility received him with open arms, and the multitude of commissions encouraged him to prolong his stay. In September 1674, he moved to London where he became court painter to King Charles II of England and his successor James II. He painted allegorical and mythological scenes, and above all portraits. 


Gennari was an outstanding portraitist who eventually developed a style far removed from the principles taught in the school of Guercino. In the mature phase of his style, he came to acquire characteristics of the art of northern Europe, which he learned through his travels. In 1709, he was one of the founding members of the Accademia Clementina. More


Lovis Corinth (1858–1925)
Ariadne on Naxos, c.  (1913)
Oil on canvas
116 × 147 cm
Private collection

At the left and in the foreground, Ariadne lies in erotic langour on Theseus’ left thigh. In the middle and right is Dionysus, clutching his characteristic staff. Leading the animals is a small boy, and to the left of the chariot is a young bacchante. Behind them is an older couple of rather worn-out bacchantes. More


Lovis Corinth (21 July 1858 – 17 July 1925) was a German artist and writer whose mature work as a painter and printmaker realized a synthesis of impressionism and expressionism.
Corinth studied in Paris and Munich, joined the Berlin Secession group, later succeeding Max Liebermann as the group's president. His early work was naturalistic in approach. Corinth was initially antagonistic towards the expressionist movement, but after a stroke in 1911 his style loosened and took on many expressionistic qualities. His use of color became more vibrant, and he created portraits and landscapes of extraordinary vitality and power. Corinth's subject matter also included nudes and biblical scenes. More


Master of the Campana Cassoni, 1500-1525
Ariadne in Naxos, c. 1510s
Oil on poplar panel
69 x 155 cm
Musée du Petit Palais, Avignon

This master did an equally splendid picture of the events on Naxos. Ariadne is abandoned, has a pleasant sleep in a bed, that just happens to be around, then meets up with Bacchus. 

Master of the Campana Cassoni, 1500-1525
Ariadne in Naxos, c. 1510s
Detail, Lower Left

Athena rouses Theseus, commanding him to abandon Ariadne on Naxos. The maiden sleeps with a tiny, winged Hypnos (sleep personified) crouching on her head. ca 460 BC

Theseus had just sailed away, and left without pity the banished maiden asleep on the shore, scattering his promises to the winds" - Nonnus, Dionysiaca 47.265


Wall painting: Ariadne waking on the shore of Naxos; she sits on a mattress with a red cushion, wearing white drapery and a red necklace and armlets; behind her is a rocky cliff; she points at the ship of Theseus sailing away in the distance.
The Trustees of the British Museum


George Frederick Watts (1817-1904)
Ariadna

Then he and the rest of the crew fell asleep on the beach. Athena woke Theseus and told him to leave early that morning. Athena told Theseus to leave Ariadne and Phaedra on the beach. 

George Frederic Watts OM RA (London 23 February 1817 – 1 July 1904) was a popular English Victorian painter and sculptor associated with the Symbolist movement. He said "I paint ideas, not things." Watts became famous in his lifetime for his allegorical works, such as Hope and Love and Life. These paintings were intended to form part of an epic symbolic cycle called the "House of Life", in which the emotions and aspirations of life would all be represented in a universal symbolic language. More


Herbert James Draper, (1863–1920)
Ariadne, circa 1905
Oil on canvas
100 × 77 cm (39.4 × 30.3 in)

Herbert James Draper (1863 – 1920) was an English Classicist painter whose career began in the Victorian era and extended through the first two decades of the 20th century. Born in London, the son of a jeweller, he was educated at Bruce Castle School in Tottenham and then went on to study art at the Royal Academy. He undertook several educational trips to Rome and Paris between 1888 and 1892, having won the Royal Academy Gold Medal and Travelling Studentship in 1889. In the 1890s, he worked as an illustrator, eventually settling in London. He died of arteriosclerosis at the age of 56, in his home on Abbey Road. More

Sir John Lavery RA (1856 – 1941) 
Ariadna, c.  (1886) 

Sir John Lavery RA (20 March 1856 – 10 January 1941) was an Irish painter best known for his portraits and wartime depictions. Born in Belfast Lavery attended Haldane Academy in Glasgow in the 1870s and the Académie Julian in Paris in the early 1880s. He returned to Glasgow and was associated with the Glasgow School. In 1888 he was commissioned to paint the state visit of Queen Victoria to the Glasgow International Exhibition. This launched his career as a society painter and he moved to London soon after. In London he became friendly with James McNeill Whistler and was clearly influenced by him.

Lavery was appointed an official artist in the First World War. Ill-health, however, prevented him from travelling to the Western Front. A serious car crash during a Zeppelin bombing raid also kept him from fulfilling this role as war artist. He remained in Britain and mostly painted boats, aeroplanes and airships. 

After the war he was knighted and in 1921 he was elected to the Royal Academy.

He and his wife were tangentially involved in the Irish War of Independence and the Irish Civil War. They gave the use of their London home to the Irish negotiators during the negotiations leading to the Anglo-Irish Treaty. In 1929, Lavery made substantial donations of his work to both The Ulster Museum and the Hugh Lane Municipal Gallery and in the 1930s he returned to Ireland. He received honorary degrees from the University of Dublin and Queen's University Belfast. He was also made a free man of both Dublin and Belfast. More

Herbert James Draper, (1864–1920)
Ariadne Deserted by Theseus
Middlesbrough Institute of Modern Art

Herbert James Draper (1863 – 1920), see above


Angelica Kauffman, (1741–1807)
Ariadne Abandoned by Theseus, c.  1774
Oil on canvas
90.9 × 63.8 cm (35.8 × 25.1 in)
Museum of Fine Arts, Houston

Angelica Kauffman, (1741–1807)
Bacchus and Ariadne, c. 1790s

Oil on canvas


Angelica Kauffman, (1741–1807)
BACCHUS DISCOVERS ARIADNE ABANDONED BY THESEUS ON THE ISLAND OF NAXOS, 1764

Maria Anna Angelika Kauffmann RA (30 October 1741 – 5 November 1807), usually known in English as Angelica Kauffman,[a] was an Austrian Neoclassical painter who had a successful career in London and Rome. She was one of the two female founding members of the Royal Academy in London in 1768. More


George Frederic Watts, O.M., R.A., 1817-1904
WATCHING FOR THE RETURN OF THESEUS
Oil on canvas
56 by 35cm., 22 by 13¾in.

George Frederick Watts (1817-1904), see above


Charles de La Fosse (1636–1716)
Bacchus and Ariadne, circa 1699
Oil on canvas
Musée des Beaux-Arts de Dijon

Charles de La Fosse (June 15, 1636 – December 13, 1716), French painter, was born in Paris. He was one of the most noted and least servile pupils of Le Brun, under whose direction he shared in the chief of the great decorative works undertaken in the reign of Louis XIV. Leaving France in 1662, he spent two years in Rome and three in Venice. The influence of his prolonged studies of Veronese is evident in his Finding of Moses (Louvre), and in his Rape of Proserpine (Louvre), which he presented to the Royal Academy as his diploma picture in 1673. He was at once named assistant professor, and in 1674 the full responsibilities of the office devolved on him, but his engagements did not prevent his accepting in 1689 the invitation of Lord Montagu to decorate


He visited London twice, remaining on the second occasion—together with Rousseau and Monnoyer more than two years. William III vainly strove to detain him in England by the proposal that he should decorate Hampton Court, for Le Brun was dead, and Mansart pressed La Fosse to return to Paris to take in hand the cupola of Les Invalides. During his latter years La Fosse executed many other important decorations in public buildings and private houses. The artis't works and conception played a key role in the French art history from shifting the classicism of the French style from the court of Louis XIV towards the lighter and more playful Rococo period's style. More


TINTORETTO, (b. 1518, Venezia, d. 1594, Venezia)
Bacchus, Venus and Ariadne, c. 1576-77
Oil on canvas
146 x 167 cm
Palazzo Ducale, Venice

Tintoretto; born Jacopo Comin, (October, 1518 – May 31, 1594) was an Italian painter and a notable exponent of the Renaissance school. For his phenomenal energy in painting he was termed Il Furioso. His work is characterized by its muscular figures, dramatic gestures, and bold use of perspective in the Mannerist style, while maintaining color and light typical of the Venetian School.


In his youth, Tintoretto was also known as Jacopo Robusti as his father had defended the gates of Padua in a way that others called robust, against the imperial troops during the War of the League of Cambrai (1509–1516). His real name "Comin" has only recently been discovered by Miguel Falomir, the curator of the Museo del Prado, Madrid, and was made public on the occasion of the retrospective of Tintoretto at the Prado in 2007. More

Stricken with distress, Theseus forgot to put up the white sails instead of the black ones, so the king committed suicide, in some versions throwing himself off a cliff and into the sea, thus causing this body of water to be named the Aegean. 


Aegean King and return of Theseus

Kruklidis Panaiotis Graduated in Architecture at the University of Florence, always a fervent scholar and passionate about archeology, design and computer graphics. More

Artist Unknown 
When Theseus returned home to Athens, he forgot to change the color of his sails which would signal to his father, King Aegeas, that he was alive and okay. The king was so distressed by seeing his son’s ship arrive in the distance with sails announcing death, that he killed himself before the ship made dock.


Dionysus later saw Ariadne crying out for Theseus and took pity on her and married her.


Titian (1490–1576)
Bacchus and Ariadne, c. 1520 until 1523
Oil on canvas
176.5 × 191 cm (69.5 × 75.2 in)
National Gallery

Theseus, whose ship is shown in the distance, has just left Ariadne on Naxos, when Bacchus arrives, jumping from his chariot, drawn by two cheetahs falling immediately in love with Ariadne. Bacchus raised her to heaven. Her constellation is shown in the sky.

Tiziano Vecelli or Tiziano Vecellio, or Titian (1488/1490 – 27 August 1576), was an Italian painter, the most important member of the 16th-century Venetian school. He was born in Pieve di Cadore, near Belluno (in Veneto, Republic of Venice). During his lifetime he was often called da Cadore, taken from the place of his birth.

Recognized by his contemporaries as "The Sun Amidst Small Stars", Titian was one of the most versatile of Italian painters, equally adept with portraits, landscape backgrounds, and mythological and religious subjects. His painting methods, particularly in the application and use of color, would exercise a profound influence not only on painters of the Italian Renaissance, but on future generations of Western art.


During the course of his long life, Titian's artistic manner changed drastically but he retained a lifelong interest in color. Although his mature works may not contain the vivid, luminous tints of his early pieces, their loose brushwork and subtlety of tone are without precedent in the history of Western painting. More


Guido Reni, (Italy, Calvenzano, 1575-1642)
Bacchus and Ariadne
Guido Reni (Italy, circa 1619-1620
Oil on canvas
53 × 48 × 5 in. (134.62 × 121.92 × 12.7 cm)
Los Angeles County Museum of Art

Guido Reni (4 November 1575 – 18 August 1642) was an Italian painter of high-Baroque style. Born in Bologna into a family of musicians, Guido Reni was the son of Daniele Reni and Ginevra de’ Pozzi. As a child of nine, he was apprenticed under the Bolognese studio of Denis Calvaert. When Reni was about twenty years old he migrated to the rising rival studio, named Accademia degli Incamminati (Academy of the "newly embarked", or progressives), led by Lodovico Carracci. He went on to form the nucleus of a prolific and successful school of Bolognese painters who followed Annibale Carracci to Rome. Like many other Bolognese painters, Reni's painting was thematic and eclectic in style. More


23 Works by the Great Artists, following Theseus, Part 2



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Acknowledgement: Wikipedia