Wednesday, May 20, 2020

01 Work, RELIGIOUS ART - Interpretation the bible, With Footnotes - #129

Copy after Tiziano Titian, called Titian
The Martyrdom of Saint Peter Martyr
Oil on canvas
165.5 x 116.5 cm
Private collection

Saint Peter of Verona O.P. (1206 – April 6, 1252), also known as Saint Peter Martyr, was a 13th-century Italian Catholic priest. He was a Dominican friar and a celebrated preacher. He served as Inquisitor in Lombardy, was killed by an assassin, and was canonized as a Catholic saint 11 months after his death, making this the fastest canonization in history.

He was born in the city of Verona into a family perhaps sympathetic to the Cathar heresy. Peter went to a Catholic school, and later to the University of Bologna, where he is said to have maintained his orthodoxy and at the age of fifteen, met Saint Dominic. Peter joined the Order of the Friars Preachers (Dominicans) and became a celebrated preacher throughout northern and central Italy.

From the 1230s on, Peter preached against heresy, and especially Catharism, which had many adherents in thirteenth-century Northern Italy. Because of this, a group of Milanese Cathars conspired to kill him. They hired an assassin, one Carino of Balsamo. Carino's accomplice was Manfredo Clitoro of Giussano. On April 6, 1252, when Peter was returning from Como to Milan, the two assassins followed Peter to a lonely spot near Barlassina, and there killed him and mortally wounded his companion, a fellow friar named Dominic.

Carino struck Peter's head with an axe and then attacked Domenico. Peter rose to his knees, and recited the first article of the Symbol of the Apostles (the Apostle's Creed). Offering his blood as a sacrifice to God, according to legend, he dipped his fingers in it and wrote on the ground: "Credo in Unum Deum", the first words of the Nicene Creed. The blow that killed him cut off the top of his head, but the testimony given at the inquest into his death confirms that he began reciting the Creed when he was attacked.

Dominic was carried to Meda, where he died five days afterwards. More on Saint Peter

Tiziano Vecelli or Tiziano Vecellio, or Titian (1488/1490 – 27 August 1576), was an Italian painter, the most important member of the 16th-century Venetian school. 


Recognized by his contemporaries as "The Sun Amidst Small Stars", Titian was one of the most versatile of Italian painters, equally adept with portraits, landscape backgrounds, and mythological and religious subjects. His painting methods, particularly in the application and use of color, would exercise a profound influence not only on painters of the Italian Renaissance, but on future generations of Western art.

During the course of his long life, Titian's artistic manner changed drastically but he retained a lifelong interest in color. Although his mature works may not contain the vivid, luminous tints of his early pieces, their loose brushwork and subtlety of tone are without precedent in the history of Western painting. More Titian





Images are copyright of their respective owners, assignees or others. Some Images may be subject to copyright

I don't own any of these images - credit is always given when due unless it is unknown to me. if I post your images without your permission, please tell me.

I do not sell art, art prints, framed posters or reproductions. Ads are shown only to compensate the hosting expenses.

If you enjoyed this post, please share with friends and family.

Thank you for visiting my blog and also for liking its posts and pages.


Please note that the content of this post primarily consists of articles available from Wikipedia or other free sources online.

Sunday, May 3, 2020

01 Work, Interpretation of the bible, With Footnotes - 128

Attributed to the  Master of the Prodigal Son
Susanna and the Elders
Oil on panel (parquetted)
97 x 120 cm
Private collection

A fair Hebrew wife named Susanna was falsely accused by lecherous voyeurs. As she bathes in her garden, having sent her attendants away, two lustful elders secretly observe the lovely Susanna. When she makes her way back to her house, they accost her, threatening to claim that she was meeting a young man in the garden unless she agrees to have sex with them.

She refuses to be blackmailed and is arrested and about to be put to death for promiscuity when a young man named Daniel interrupts the proceedings, shouting that the elders should be questioned to prevent the death of an innocent. After being separated, the two men are questioned about details of what they saw, but disagree about the tree under which Susanna supposedly met her lover. In the Greek text, the names of the trees cited by the elders form puns with the sentence given by Daniel. The first says they were under a mastic, and Daniel says that an angel stands ready to cuthim in two. The second says they were under an evergreen oak tree, and Daniel says that an angel stands ready to saw him in two. The great difference in size between a mastic and an oak makes the elders' lie plain to all the observers. The false accusers are put to death, and virtue triumphs. More about Susanna

The Master of the Prodigal Son. Named after the large altarpiece now in the Kunsthistorisches Museum in Vienna which depicts the Parable of the Prodigal Son, the Master of the present work comes very close in style to both Pieter Coecke van Aelst (1502-50) and Frans Floris (1517-1570). This stylistic affinity suggests that the artist was active in Antwerp during the second quarter of the 16th Century. The master often treated subjects from the Old Testament. More on The Master of the Prodigal Son

He was born in Antwerp and is considered to have run a workshop there with several pupils. His name is derived from a painting in Vienna. He is known for landscapes and religious works, and possibly travelled to Rome. Though a monogram of "LK" was discovered in one of his paintings, to conclude that this person was the Leonart Kroes mentioned as teacher in Karel van Mander's biography of Gillis van Coninxloo is incorrect. More on The Master of the Prodigal Son






Images are copyright of their respective owners, assignees or others. Some Images may be subject to copyright

I don't own any of these images - credit is always given when due unless it is unknown to me. if I post your images without your permission, please tell me.

I do not sell art, art prints, framed posters or reproductions. Ads are shown only to compensate the hosting expenses.

If you enjoyed this post, please share with friends and family.

Thank you for visiting my blog and also for liking its posts and pages.

Please note that the content of this post primarily consists of articles available from Wikipedia or other free sources online.

Thursday, April 30, 2020

01 Work, 20th Century Interpretation of the Bible! With Footnotes - #42

Glen Robert Preece, (b. 1957)
Angel and the Devil's Chorus, c. 1995 
Oil on canvas 
120.5 x 150.5cm
Private collection

Glen Preece (b.1957), started painting when he was 10 when he sold his first 3 paintings in an exhibition in Sydney. During his later studies in Sydney he was initially condemned by his tutors as too traditional but his talent was quickly recognized by the late John Brackenreg. A hugely influential figure in the Australian Fine Art, Brackenreg immediately gave the prodigious Preece a solo show – it sold out on the opening night.

Representational art, mainly the French and Australian Impressionists, inspired his work for many years. He is also fascinated by movements such as Expressionism and Fauvism. His interiors hint, as the German Expressionists did, at a seamy underbelly of city life - Left Bank cafes that suggest the abandoned feel of after-hours isolation. However Preece seems to reject the cynicism of the Expressionist movement, imbuing his paintings instead with the warm ochres and umbers which originate in the rich earth of his home country. More on Glen Preece






Images are copyright of their respective owners, assignees or others. Some Images may be subject to copyright

I don't own any of these images - credit is always given when due unless it is unknown to me. if I post your images without your permission, please tell me.

I do not sell art, art prints, framed posters or reproductions. Ads are shown only to compensate the hosting expenses.

If you enjoyed this post, please share with friends and family.

Thank you for visiting my blog and also for liking its posts and pages.

Please note that the content of this post primarily consists of articles available from Wikipedia or other free sources online.

01 Work, Interpretation the bible, With Footnotes - 127

Cologne School circa 1520/25
The Lamentation of Christ
Oil on oak panel
55 x 80 cm
Private collection

The Lamentation of Christ is a very common subject in Christian art from the High Middle Ages to the Baroque. After Jesus was crucified, his body was removed from the cross and his friends mourned over his body. This event has been depicted by many different artists.


Lamentation works are very often included in cycles of the Life of Christ, and also form the subject of many individual works. One specific type of Lamentation depicts only Jesus' mother Mary cradling his body. These are known as Pietà (Italian for "pity") More The Lamentation of Christ

The term "Cologne School of Painting" loosely describes those Old Masters who were active in the medieval city of Cologne, and the lower-Rhine region, from about 1350 to 1550. Its representative religious paintings - mostly altarpieces - illustrate the various styles of oil painting practiced in Northern Europe during the period. 

Cologne was one of the most important, wealthy and secure cities in Europe, with some 42,000 inhabitants, and a thriving economy based on its membership of the Hanseatic League. Its wealth, along with its extensive network of churches, chapels, monasteries and charitable foundations - and of course the magnificent Cologne Cathedral - provided a fertile environment for Christian art of all types. Not for nothing was it known as the "Rome of the North". More on Cologne School of Painting






Images are copyright of their respective owners, assignees or others. Some Images may be subject to copyright

I don't own any of these images - credit is always given when due unless it is unknown to me. if I post your images without your permission, please tell me.

I do not sell art, art prints, framed posters or reproductions. Ads are shown only to compensate the hosting expenses.

If you enjoyed this post, please share with friends and family.

Thank you for visiting my blog and also for liking its posts and pages.


Please note that the content of this post primarily consists of articles available from Wikipedia or other free sources online.

Sunday, April 26, 2020

01 Work, Contemporary Interpretations of Olympian deities, with footnotes #27

Edward Dwurnik,  (1943 - 2018)
Leda, c. 1991
Oil on canvas
147 x 114 cm
Private collection

Leda, in Greek legend, usually believed to be the daughter of Thestius, king of Aetolia, and wife of Tyndareus, king of Lacedaemon. She was also believed to have been the mother (by Zeus, who had approached and seduced her in the form of a swan) of the other twin, Pollux, and of Helen, both of whom hatched from eggs. Variant legends gave divine parentage to both the twins and possibly also to Clytemnestra, with all three of them having hatched from the eggs of Leda, while yet other legends say that Leda bore the twins to her mortal husband, Tyndareus. Still other variants say that Leda may have hatched out Helen from an egg laid by the goddess Nemesis, who was similarly approached by Zeus in the form of a swan.The divine swan’s encounter with Leda was a subject depicted by both ancient Greek and Italian Renaissance artists; Leonardo da Vinci undertook a painting (now lost) of the theme, and Correggio’s Leda (c. 1530s) is a well-known treatment of the subject. More Leda and The Swan

Edward Dwurnik (born April 19, 1943 in Radzymin , died October 28, 2018 in Warsaw) - was a Polish painter and graphic artist.

From 1963-1970 Edward Dwurnik studied painting, sculpture and graphics at the Academy of Fine Arts in Warsaw. During the first years at the Academy, he thought,  "did not have any vision of his work". After encountering the works of Bernard, Buffett saw new possibilities for painting, but it was only after Nikifor's experience in 1965 that he helped him find a form that would support his own ideas.  An artistic solution, in terms of this problem, was to build multi-element compositions, complications, and create relationships between objects of the image. He painted over 5000 paintings. Dwurnik regularly presented his paintings depicting the capitals of various European Union countries during the Presidency of the European Union held at the Chojnata Palace in Wola Chojnata.

He was awarded, among others, with the "Solidarity" Cultural Award ( 1983 ), Nouvelle Biennale de Paris ( 1985 ), the Seoul Olympics Award in 1988 ( 1988 ) and the Award of the Contemporary Art Foundation ( 1992 ). More on Edward Dwurnik






Images are copyright of their respective owners, assignees or others. Some Images may be subject to copyright

I don't own any of these images - credit is always given when due unless it is unknown to me. if I post your images without your permission, please tell me.

I do not sell art, art prints, framed posters or reproductions. Ads are shown only to compensate the hosting expenses.

If you enjoyed this post, please share with friends and family.

Thank you for visiting my blog and also for liking its posts and pages.


Please note that the content of this post primarily consists of articles available from Wikipedia or other free sources online.

Monday, April 20, 2020

01 Work, Contemporary Interpretations of Olympian deities, with footnotes #25

William Oxer FRSA, United Kingdom
Blest Pair Of Sirens
Acrylic on Canvas
16 W x 11 H x 1 in

According to Greek myths, sirens were powerful and erotic creatures, and many unsuspecting sailors would fall prey to their seductive beauty. The common belief was that they would devour sailors after their ships would crash into the rocks, as most men couldn't resist the temptation of their sweet melodies and angelic faces. More on The Fisherman and The Siren

William Oxer travelled widely through Europe, a Grand Tour as a fair swap for his driving skills. After graduating, William was offered a place at the Prince of Wales' Institute of Architecture but was advised by them to take the position of assistant to Alec Cobbe, artist, restorer and collector. 


Living in at Hatchlands Park, Surrey. He lived at the latter back in 1996, working with restorer and interiors expert, Alec Cobbe.

Over the past 25 years, William has undertaken regular portrait commissions for private clients and produced artworks for exhibitions and collectors across the world. His work also includes period decoration and exhibition design in places such as Christie’s and the Building of Bath Museum, also known as The Museum of Bath Architecture. More on William Oxer





Images are copyright of their respective owners, assignees or others. Some Images may be subject to copyright

I don't own any of these images - credit is always given when due unless it is unknown to me. if I post your images without your permission, please tell me.

I do not sell art, art prints, framed posters or reproductions. Ads are shown only to compensate the hosting expenses.

If you enjoyed this post, please share with friends and family.

Thank you for visiting my blog and also for liking its posts and pages.


Please note that the content of this post primarily consists of articles available from Wikipedia or other free sources online.

01 Work, Interpretation the bible, With Footnotes - 126

Circle of Jan Gossaert, called Mabuse
The Virgin and Child with a Lily
Oil on panel
74 x 59 cm
Private collection

The Madonna and Child or The Virgin and Child is often the name of a work of art which shows the Virgin Mary and the Child Jesus. The word Madonna means "My Lady" in Italian. Artworks of the Christ Child and his mother Mary are part of the Roman Catholic tradition in many parts of the world including Italy, Spain, Portugal, France, South America and the Philippines. Paintings known as icons are also an important tradition of the Orthodox Church and often show the Mary and the Christ Child. They are found particularly in Eastern Europe, Russia, Egypt, the Middle East and India. More Madonna and Child

Jan Gossaert (c. 1478 – 1 October 1532) was a French-speaking painter from the Low Countries also known as Jan Mabuse (the name he adopted from his birthplace, Maubeuge) or Jennyn van Hennegouwe (Hainaut), as he called himself when he matriculated in the Guild of Saint Luke, at Antwerp, in 1503. He was one of the first painters of Dutch and Flemish Renaissance painting to visit Italy and Rome, which he did in 1508–09, and a leader of the style known as Romanism, which brought elements of Italian Renaissance painting to the north, sometimes with a rather awkward effect. He achieved fame across at least northern Europe, and painted religious subjects, including large altarpieces, but also portraits and mythological subjects, including some nudity.

From at least 1508 he was apparently continuous employed, or at least retained, by quasi-royal patrons, mostly members of the extended Habsburg family, heirs to the Valois Duchy of Burgundy. These were Philip of Burgundy, Adolf of Burgundy, Christian II of Denmark when in exile, and Mencía de Mendoza, Countess of Nassau, third wife of Henry III of Nassau-Breda.

He was a contemporary of Albrecht Dürer and the rather younger Lucas van Leyden, whom he knew, but he has tended to be less highly regarded in modern times than they were. Unlike them, he was not a printmaker, though his surviving drawings are very fine, and are preferred by some to his paintings. More on Jan Gossaert





Images are copyright of their respective owners, assignees or others. Some Images may be subject to copyright

I don't own any of these images - credit is always given when due unless it is unknown to me. if I post your images without your permission, please tell me.

I do not sell art, art prints, framed posters or reproductions. Ads are shown only to compensate the hosting expenses.

If you enjoyed this post, please share with friends and family.

Thank you for visiting my blog and also for liking its posts and pages.


Please note that the content of this post primarily consists of articles available from Wikipedia or other free sources online.

Saturday, April 18, 2020

01 Painting, Olympian deities, by the Old Masters, with footnotes #41

John Roddam Spencer Stanhope, 1829-1908
ANDROMEDA
Oil on canvas
127 by 53cm., 50 by 21in.
Private collection

Andromeda is the daughter of the Aethiopian king Cepheus and his wife Cassiopeia. When Cassiopeia's hubris leads her to boast that Andromeda is more beautiful than the Nereids, Poseidon sends a sea monster, Cetus, to ravage Aethiopia as divine punishment. Andromeda is stripped and chained naked to a rock as a sacrifice to sate the monster, but is saved from death by Perseus.

As a subject, Andromeda has been popular in art since classical times; it is one of several Greek myths of a Greek hero's rescue of the intended victim of an archaic hieros gamos, giving rise to the "princess and dragon" motif. From the Renaissance, interest revived in the original story, typically as derived from Ovid's account. More on Andromeda

John Roddam Spencer Stanhope (20 January 1829 — 2 August 1908) is an English artist associated with Edward Burne-Jones and George Frederic Watts and often regarded as a second-wave pre-Raphaelite. His work is also studied within the context of Aestheticism and British Symbolism. As a painter, Stanhope worked in oil, watercolor, fresco, and mixed media. His subject matter was mythological, allegorical, biblical, and contemporary. Stanhope was born in Yorkshire, England, and died in Florence, Italy. He was the uncle and teacher of the painter Evelyn De Morgan. More on John Roddam Spencer Stanhope





Images are copyright of their respective owners, assignees or others. Some Images may be subject to copyright

I don't own any of these images - credit is always given when due unless it is unknown to me. if I post your images without your permission, please tell me.

I do not sell art, art prints, framed posters or reproductions. Ads are shown only to compensate the hosting expenses.

If you enjoyed this post, please share with friends and family.

Thank you for visiting my blog and also for liking its posts and pages.


Please note that the content of this post primarily consists of articles available from Wikipedia or other free sources online.

01 Work, Interpretation the bible, With Footnotes - 126

Cercle of Paul Bril
Saint Anthony Abbot before his field of crops
Oil on copper
27 × 36,5 cm
Private collection

Saint Anthony or Antony (251–356) was a Christian monk from Egypt, revered since his death as a saint. He is distinguished from other saints named Anthony by various epithets: Anthony the Great, Anthony of Egypt, Anthony the Abbot, Anthony of the Desert, Anthony the Anchorite, and Anthony of Thebes. For his importance among the Desert Fathers and to all later Christian monasticism, he is also known as the Father of All Monks. His feast day is celebrated on January 17 among the Orthodox and Catholic churches and on Tobi 22 in the Egyptian calendar used by the Coptic Church.
The biography of Anthony's life by Athanasius of Alexandria helped to spread the concept of Christian monasticism, particularly in Western Europe via its Latin translations. He is often erroneously considered the first Christian monk, but as his biography and other sources make clear, there were many ascetics before him. Anthony was, however, the first to go into the wilderness, a geographical move that seems to have contributed to his renown. Accounts of Anthony enduring supernatural temptation during his sojourn in the Eastern Desert of Egypt inspired the often-repeated subject of the temptation of St. Anthony in Western art and literature. 

Paul Brill, also called Paulus Bril, (born 1554, Antwerp—died October 7, 1626, Rome), Flemish artist who was perhaps the most popular painter of landscapes in Rome in the late 16th and early 17th centuries. His early forest landscapes derive in style partly from Mannerism, but after 1600 he disciplined and simplified his compositions under the influence of the German painter Adam Elsheimer. His latest work was classical in character. Several of his fresco cycles survive in Vatican City and elsewhere as well as numerous individual works on panel and canvas. His brother Mattheus (1550–83) was also an accomplished painter, but he died young, and Paul finished many of Mattheus’ uncompleted works. More on Paul Brill





Images are copyright of their respective owners, assignees or others. Some Images may be subject to copyright

I don't own any of these images - credit is always given when due unless it is unknown to me. if I post your images without your permission, please tell me.

I do not sell art, art prints, framed posters or reproductions. Ads are shown only to compensate the hosting expenses.

If you enjoyed this post, please share with friends and family.

Thank you for visiting my blog and also for liking its posts and pages.


Please note that the content of this post primarily consists of articles available from Wikipedia or other free sources online.

Sunday, April 12, 2020

01 Work, Artist's Interpretation the bible, With Footnotes - 125

Attributed to Jusepe de Ribera
The Penitent Magdalene 
Oil on canvas 
49 3/8 x 39 1/2 inches (125.4 x 100.3 cm)
Private collection

A sinner, perhaps a courtesan, Mary Magdalen was a witness of Christ who renounced the pleasures of the flesh for a life of penance and contemplation. Penitent Magdalene or Penitent Magdalen refers to a post-biblical period in the life of Mary Magdalene, according to medieval legend. 

According to the tenets of the 17th–century Catholic church, Mary Magdalene was an example of the repentant sinner and consequently a symbol of the Sacrament of Penance. According to legend, Mary led a dissolute life until her sister Martha persuaded her to listen to Jesus Christ. She became one of Christ's most devoted followers and he absolved her of her former sins. More on The Penitent Magdalen 

Penitent Magdalen refers to a post-biblical period in the life of Mary Magdalen.

The sacrament of Penance had important significance in Counter-Reformation spirituality, and artists frequently portrayed penitent saints as exemplars of religious fervor. Such works were meant to inspire a greater devotion. On the other hand, the popularity of The Magdalene as a subject is also associated with her implied sexuality. Her passive gaze and partially naked body appealed to male viewers, for whom such paintings offered a moralizing context through which to engage with the sensuality of the female form. The Penitent Magdalene

José de Ribera (January 12, 1591 – September 2, 1652) was a Spanish Tenebrist painter and printmaker, better known as Jusepe de Ribera. He also was called Lo Spagnoletto ("the Little Spaniard") by his contemporaries and early writers. Ribera was a leading painter of the Spanish school, although his mature work was all done in Italy. More on José de Ribera





Images are copyright of their respective owners, assignees or others. Some Images may be subject to copyright

I don't own any of these images - credit is always given when due unless it is unknown to me. if I post your images without your permission, please tell me.

I do not sell art, art prints, framed posters or reproductions. Ads are shown only to compensate the hosting expenses.

If you enjoyed this post, please share with friends and family.

Thank you for visiting my blog and also for liking its posts and pages.

Please note that the content of this post primarily consists of articles available from Wikipedia or other free sources online.

Tuesday, April 7, 2020

01 Work, Contemporary Interpretations of Olympian deities, with footnotes #24

Richard Ziegler (1891 - 1992)
 Judgment of Paris, c. 1929
Oil on canvas
148.5 x 203 cm.
Private collection

The influence of the art of Italy and especially of the Renaissance can also be seen in this work. Thus, the frieze-like structure and the detailed representation of the vegetation to Paolo Uccello reminiscent, while Sandro Botticelli's painting with the same subject Paris also on the right sitting on a stone with the golden apple in his hand. The high cheekbones and the thin lips of Paris in the present work, however, suggest a self-portrait of the artist who has to choose between three beauties, blonde, brunette or black-haired. According to Cornelia Ziegler, daughter of the artist. More on this painting

THE JUDGEMENT OF PARIS was a contest between the three most beautiful goddesses of Olympos--Aphrodite, Hera and Athena--for the prize of a golden apple addressed "To the Fairest."


The story began with the wedding of Peleus and Thetis which all the gods had been invited to attend except for Eris, goddess of discord. When Eris appeared at the festivities she was turned away and in her anger cast the golden apple amongst the assembled goddesses addressed "To the Fairest." Three goddesses laid claim to the apple--Aphrodite, Hera and Athena. Zeus was asked to mediate and he commanded Hermes to lead the three goddesses to Paris of Troy to decide the issue. The three goddesses appearing before the shepherd prince, each offering him gifts for favour. He chose Aphrodite, swayed by her promise to bestow upon him Helene, the most beautiful woman, for wife. The subsequent abduction of Helene led directly to the Trojan War and the fall of the city. More on the THE JUDGEMENT OF PARIS

Richard Ziegler was born on May 3, 1891 in Pforzheim. After he attended the Gymnasium, Ziegler went to Great Britain for a year. On his return, he studied philology in Geneva, Greifswald, and Heidelberg, where he received his doctorate in 1919. Though he began painting as a child, art played no deciding role in his studies. 

After his studies though, he decided to become a painter. In the following years, Richard Ziegler produced book illustrations, woodcuts, and oil paintings. In 1925, he settled in Berlin as a professional artist, but after the Nazis came to power in 1933, he left Germany. 

Until 1937, Ziegler lived on the island of Korcula in Croatia. There he produced three series of monotypes, in which he dealt with the political events in Germany. From 1937 until the end of the war, he lived in England. In 1963, Richard Ziegler went to Spain to live on the island of Mallorca. His late expressive-realistic work was produced there. Richard Ziegler spent his last years in his hometown of Pforzheim. 

He died there on February 23, 1992, at the age of 101. More on Richard Ziegler






Images are copyright of their respective owners, assignees or others. Some Images may be subject to copyright

I don't own any of these images - credit is always given when due unless it is unknown to me. if I post your images without your permission, please tell me.

I do not sell art, art prints, framed posters or reproductions. Ads are shown only to compensate the hosting expenses.

If you enjoyed this post, please share with friends and family.

Thank you for visiting my blog and also for liking its posts and pages.


Please note that the content of this post primarily consists of articles available from Wikipedia or other free sources online.