Thursday, March 12, 2020

01 Work, CONTEMPORARY & 20th Century Interpretation of the Bible! With Footnotes - 36

Kim Byungkwan, South Korea
The Descent I
Acrylic on Canvas
44.1 W x 63.9 H x 1.2 in

The Descent from the Cross, or Deposition of Christ, is the scene, as depicted in art, from the Gospels' accounts of Joseph of Arimathea and Nicodemus taking Christ down from the cross after his crucifixion. In Byzantine art the topic became popular in the 9th century, and in the West from the 10th century. The Descent from the Cross is the 13th Station of the Cross.


Other figures not mentioned in the Gospels who are often included in depictions of this subject include St. John the Evangelist, who is sometimes depicted supporting a fainting Mary, and Mary Magdalene. More on the decent from the cross

Kim Byungkwan: "What I would like to express through my work is very simple. I am trying to bring out strangeness from familiarity (visual habit). Everything there is out there in this world, more or less, provides familiar vision. This familiar vision can be replaced as habit. This habitual vision which every object gives us and creates comfort. However it shuts down all the other possibilities. The habitual vision or visual habit makes us go by the routine ways. It stops us from having adventure and checking out the wonders out there. My work is trying to destroy, tear up, and reconstruct this habitual vision so that our vision can be expended to other images. I have strong faith in my work that my personal behaviour may lead us “strangeness within habitual vision off from the track." More on Kim Byungkwan






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Saturday, March 7, 2020

01 Painting, Olympian deities, by the artists of their time, with footnotes #42

Peter Paul Rubens, (1577–1640)
La Chasse au sanglier, The Calydonian boar hunt, between circa 1615 and circa 1616
Oil on canvas
Height: 250 cm (98.4 ″); Width: 320 cm (10.4 ft)
Musée des beaux-arts de Marseille


The Calydonian or Aetolian Boar is one of the monsters of Greek mythology that had to be overcome by heroes of the Olympian age. Sent by Artemis to ravage the region of Calydon in Aetolia because its king failed to honour her in his rites to the gods, it was killed in the Calydonian Hunt, in which many male heroes took part, but also a powerful woman, Atalanta, who won its hide by first wounding it with an arrow. This outraged some of the men, with tragic results. Strabo was under the impression that the Calydonian Boar was an offspring of the Crommyonian Sow vanquished by Theseus. More on the Calydonian boar hunt


Sir Peter Paul Rubens (28 June 1577 – 30 May 1640) was a Flemish Baroque painter. A proponent of an extravagant Baroque style that emphasized movement, colour, and sensuality, Rubens is well known for his Counter-Reformation altarpieces, portraits, landscapes, and history paintings of mythological and allegorical subjects.
In addition to running a large studio in Antwerp that produced paintings popular with nobility and art collectors throughout Europe, Rubens was a classically educated humanist scholar and diplomat who was knighted by both Philip IV of Spain and Charles I of England.  More Sir Peter Paul Rubens





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01 Work, CONTEMPORARY & 20th Century Interpretation of the Bible! With Footnotes - #39

Jean Lambert-Rucki, (1888-1967) 
Descent from the Cross, 1931 
Gouache and ink on cardboard
51 x 32 CM - 20 1/16 x 12 5/8 in.
Private collection

The Descent from the Cross, or Deposition of Christ, is the scene, as depicted in art, from the Gospels' accounts of Joseph of Arimathea and Nicodemus taking Christ down from the cross after his crucifixion. In Byzantine art the topic became popular in the 9th century, and in the West from the 10th century. The Descent from the Cross is the 13th Station of the Cross.

Other figures not mentioned in the Gospels who are often included in depictions of this subject include St. John the Evangelist, who is sometimes depicted supporting a fainting Mary, and Mary Magdalene. The Gospels mention an undefined number of women as watching the crucifixion, including the Three Marys and Mary Salome.  More on Deposition of Christ

Jean Lambert-Rucki (1888–1967), a Polish avant-garde artist, sculptor, and graphic artist, was best known for his participation in the Cubist, Surrealist and Art Deco movements. He exhibited at the 1913 Salon d'Automne in Paris. From 1919 he was represented by both Léonce Rosenberg at the Galerie de l'Effort Moderne and the art dealer Paul Guillaume. In March 1920, Lambert-Rucki exhibited at the second exhibition of la Section d'Or, Galerie de La Boétie, Paris, and participated in the first exhibition of l'Union des Artistes Modernes, where he would continue to show his works. Working in diverse styles and media, at times influenced by the tribal art of Africa, Lambert-Rucki became well known for his Cubist cityscapes. More on Jean Lambert-Rucki





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Thursday, February 27, 2020

01 Work, RELIGIOUS ART - Interpretation the bible, With Footnotes - #134

Fiorentino Rosso
Lamentation Of Christ
Oil on canvas
1530-th , 127×163 cm
Louvre Museum, Paris

This is the only easel painting that can be dated with certainty to Rosso's stay in France in 1530-40. The cushions beneath Christ's body bear the blue alerions on an orange background of the coat of arms of Constable Anne de Montmorency, from whose château at Ecouen the Pietà was taken to the Louvre in the late 18th century. The marks visible on the bodies of Christ and St John are due to an initial, reversed composition - vsible under X-ray photography - which Rosso had blacked out. 

This is the only surviving example of the religious works Rosso executed in France. More on this painting

The Lamentation of Christ is a very common subject in Christian art from the High Middle Ages to the Baroque. After Jesus was crucified, his body was removed from the cross and his friends mourned over his body. This event has been depicted by many different artists.

Lamentation works are very often included in cycles of the Life of Christ, and also form the subject of many individual works. One specific type of Lamentation depicts only Jesus' mother Mary cradling his body. These are known as Pietà, pity.  More on The Lamentationof Christ

Giovanni Battista di Jacopo (8 March 1495 in Gregorian style, or 1494 according to the calculation of times in Florence where the year began on 25 March – 14 November 1540), known as Rosso Fiorentino (meaning "red Florentine" in Italian), or Il Rosso, was an Italian Mannerist painter, in oil and fresco, belonging to the Florentine school.

Born in Florence with the red hair that gave him his nickname, Rosso first trained in the studio of Andrea del Sarto. In late 1523, Rosso moved to Rome, where he was exposed to the works of Michelangelo, Raphael, and other Renaissance artists, resulting in the realignment of his artistic style.

Fleeing Rome after the Sacking of 1527, Rosso eventually went to France where he secured a position at the court of Francis I in 1530, remaining there until his death. Together with Francesco Primaticcio, Rosso was one of the leading artists to work at the Chateau Fontainebleau as part of the "First School of Fontainebleau", spending much of his life there. 


Rosso's reputation, along those of other stylized late Renaissance Florentines, was long out of favour in comparison to other more naturalistic and graceful contemporaries, but has revived considerably in recent decades. That his masterpiece is in a small city, away from the tourist track, was a factor in this, especially before the arrival of photography. His poses are certainly contorted, and his figures often appear haggard and thin, but his work has considerable power. More on Fiorentino Rosso






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Wednesday, February 26, 2020

01 Painting, Modern Interpretation of Olympian deities, with footnotes #41

Elizabeth Lennie, Canada
Tethys
Oil on canvas
32 W x 48 H x 1.5 in

In Greek mythology, Tethys was one of the Titan offspring of Uranus (Sky) and Gaia (Earth). Tethys played no active part in Greek mythology, the only early story concerning Tethys, is what Homer has Hera briefly relate in the Iliad's Deception of Zeus passage. Hera says that, when Zeus was in the process of deposing Cronus, she was given by her mother Rhea to Tethys and Oceanus, for safekeeping, and that they "lovingly nursed and cherished me in their halls".

At a later time Tethys came to be identified with the sea, and in Hellenistic and Roman poetry Tethys' name came to be used as a poetic term for the sea.

M. L. West detects in the Iliad's Deception of Zeus passage an allusion to a possible archaic myth "according to which Tethys was the mother of the gods, long estranged from her husband," speculating that the estrangement might refer to a separation of "the upper and lower waters ... corresponding to that of heaven and earth." More on Tethys

Elizabeth Lennie: "Water has been the backdrop to the significant events in my life. I work with oil paint on canvas, layering thin washes with thicker impasto. The images are often figurative and explore the memory myth of summer. The paintings are a map of my world, in both abstract and narrative form. By isolating and extracting vibrant colors in a signature soft-focus style, the memory myth of summer is explored and journaled in a series of liquid landscapes on canvas. I live in Toronto, Canada, and work both as a commercial voice-over narrator and visual artist. My work is collected world-wide and I am honored to be included in the Canadian Hockey Hall of Fame art collection as well as Centre Hospital, S.F. and the UVA Medical Centre: More on Elizabeth Lennie







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01 Work, Modern Interpretation of the Bible! With Footnotes - #40

Odilon Redon, 1840 - 1916
LE CHRIST ET SES DISCIPLES/ CHRIST AND HIS DISCIPLES c, 1905
Oil on canvas
12 3/4 by 9 5/8 in., 32.5 by 24.5 cm
Private collection

Since much of Western religious art is traditionally rooted in scripture, Redon is unusual in this respect. The present work draws on the theme of discipleship and the divine nature of Christ rather than a specific episode of the New Testament. Though he was not an orthodox Christian, Redon mixed in Catholic circles and was clearly attracted to the figure of Christ who features frequently at this time. More on this painting

The twelve disciples, also known as the twelve apostles, were Jesus's closest followers. Disciple is a Biblical term meaning learner or pupil.

They were men who travelled with Jesus and learned from him. The twelve and Jesus ate together at the Last Supper on the night before Jesus was executed. After Jesus's death, they separated and began to spread his teachings.

Disciple was also used to refer to other followers of Jesus - but the 12 apostles were Jesus's closest companions before his crucifixion.

There is some disagreement among Biblical scholars as to who exactly should be counted as an apostle. Paul of Tarsus called himself an apostle. He was active in the early Christian church but did not meet Jesus while he was alive - but Paul argued that he received revelation from the risen Jesus directly. Mary Magdalene, a female follower of Jesus, is often referred to as a disciple. She is also sometimes called the apostles' apostle.

This article uses the names listed in the Gospel of Matthew, of the 12 main followers of Jesus during his lifetime. More on The twelve disciples


Bertrand-Jean Redon better known as Odilon Redon (April 20, 1840 - July 6, 1916) was a Symbolist painter and printmaker, born in Bordeaux, Aquitaine, France. Odilon was a nickname derived from his mother, Odile.

Redon started drawing as a young child, and at the age of 10 he was awarded a drawing prize at school. At age 15, he began formal study in drawing but on the insistence of his father he switched to architecture. His failure to pass the entrance exams at Paris' Ecole des Beaux-Arts ended any plans for a career as an architect, although he would later study there under Jean-Leon Gerome.

He took up sculpture, and Rodolphe Bresdin instructed him in etching and lithography. His artistic career was interrupted in 1870 when he joined the army to serve in the Franco-Prussian War.

At the end of the war, he moved to Paris, working almost exclusively in charcoal and lithography. It would not be until 1878 that his work gained any recognition with Guardian Spirit of the Waters, and he published his first album of lithographs.

In the 1890s, he began to use pastel and oils, which dominated his works for the rest of his life. In 1899, he exhibited with the Nabis at Durand-Ruel's. In 1903 he was awarded the Legion of Honor. His popularity increased when a catalogue of etchings and lithographs was published by Andre Mellerio in 1913 and that same year, he was given the largest single representation at the New York Armory Show.  More on Bertrand-Jean Redon






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01 Work, RELIGIOUS ART - Modern Interpretation of the Bible! With Footnotes - #39

Roy De Maistre, 1894-1968 
Our Lady of Walsingham (Study for Central Panel) (circa 1961) 
Oil and gold leaf on composition board 
42 x 26 cm 
Private collection

Our Lady of Walsingham is a title of the Blessed Virgin Mary venerated by Roman Catholics and Anglicans associated with the Marian apparitions to Richeldis de Faverches, a pious English noblewoman, in 1061 in the village of Walsingham in Norfolk, England. Lady Richeldis had a building structure named "The Holy House" built in Walsingham which later became a shrine and place of pilgrimage. More on Our Lady of Walsingham

Roy De Maistre CBE (27 March 1894 – 1 March 1968) was an Australian artist of international fame. He is renowned in Australian art for his early experimentation with "colour-music", and is recognised as the first Australian artist to use pure abstraction. His later works were painted in a figurative style generally influenced by Cubism. His Stations of the Cross series hangs in Westminster Cathedral and works of his are hung in the Tate Gallery, London and in the Art Gallery of New South Wales, Sydney.

De Maistre was educated, together with his brothers and sisters, by tutors and governesses at the family home near Sutton Forest. In 1913 he was sent to Sydney to continue his music and art studies. He studied painting at the Royal Art Society of New South Wales. He produced works inspired by reproductions of European post-impressionists. Then he studied under Norman Carter and also at the Julian Ashton Art School in Sydney.

De Maistre developed an interest in "colour-music", his theory of colour harmonisation based on the relationship between colours of the spectrum and notes of the musical scale. With his ordered, analytical mind, he applied the theory of music to his painting. 

In 1923 he went to Europe on a travelling Art Scholarship. He spent three years abroad, studying in London, and in France in Paris and Saint-Jean-de-Luz, where he created Sea piece. He also visited Italy, Spain, Belgium, and the Netherlands.

In 1951 he was confirmed in the Roman Catholic faith. Religious subjects began after his conversion. His religious works stemmed from his profound Catholic belief in the truth of the images they represented, and his modern religious pictures were sought for public collections and exhibitions. In 1954 he began painting a series of Stations of the Cross for Westminster Cathedral. More on Roy De Maistre





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Tuesday, February 25, 2020

01 Painting, Olympian deities, by the Old Masters, with footnotes #42

Follower of Pietro da Cortona
A Roman Carrying a Sabine Woman 
Oil on canvas 
88 x 41 1/4 inches (223.5 x 104.7 cm) 
Private collection

Rape of the Sabine Women is the common name of an incident from Roman mythology, in which the men of Rome committed a mass abduction of young women from the other cities in the region. It has been a frequent subject of artists, particularly during the Renaissance and post-Renaissance eras.

Use of the word "rape" comes from the conventional translation of the Latin word used in the ancient accounts of the incident: raptio. Modern scholars tend to interpret the word as "abduction" as opposed to (sexual) violation. Controversy remains, however, as to how the acts committed against the women should be judged.

The Rape occurred in the early history of Rome, shortly after its founding by Romulus and his mostly male followers. Seeking wives in order to establish families, the Romans negotiated unsuccessfully with the Sabines, who populated the surrounding area. The Sabines feared the emergence of a rival society and refused to allow their women to marry the Romans. Consequently, the Romans planned to abduct Sabine women during a festival of Neptune Equester. They planned and announced a marvelous festival to attract people from all nearby towns. According to Livy, many people from Rome's neighboring towns attended, including folk from the Caeninenses, Crustumini, and Antemnates, and many of the Sabines. At the festival, Romulus gave a signal, at which the Romans grabbed the Sabine women and fought off the Sabine men. The indignant abductees were soon implored by Romulus to accept Roman husbands. More on Rape of the Sabine Women

Pietro da Cortona (1 November 1596/7 – 16 May 1669) was born Pietro Berrettini, but is primarily known by the name of his native town of Cortona in Tuscany. He was the leading Italian Baroque painter of his time and, along with his contemporaries and rivals Gian Lorenzo Bernini and Francesco Borromini, was one of the key figures in the emergence of Roman Baroque architecture. He was also an important designer of interior decorations.
Cortona worked mainly in Rome and Florence. He is best known for his frescoed ceilings such as the vault of the salone or main salon of the Palazzo Barberini in Rome and carried out extensive painting and decorative schemes for the Medici family in Florence and for the Oratorian fathers at the church of Santa Maria in Vallicella in Rome. He also painted numerous canvases. Only a limited number of his architectural projects were built but nonetheless they are as distinctive and as inventive as those of his rivals. More on Pietro da Cortona






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01 Work, RELIGIOUS ART - Interpretation the bible, With Footnotes - #133

Vincent Sellaer, (1490–1564)
Susanna and Elders, c. first half of 16th century
Oil on panel
Height: 105 cm (41.3 ″); Width: 85 cm (33.4 ″)
Private collection



A fair Hebrew wife named Susanna was falsely accused by lecherous voyeurs. As she bathes in her garden, having sent her attendants away, two lustful elders secretly observe the lovely Susanna. When she makes her way back to her house, they accost her, threatening to claim that she was meeting a young man in the garden unless she agrees to have sex with them.

She refuses to be blackmailed and is arrested and about to be put to death for promiscuity when a young man named Daniel interrupts the proceedings, shouting that the elders should be questioned to prevent the death of an innocent. After being separated, the two men are questioned about details of what they saw, but disagree about the tree under which Susanna supposedly met her lover. In the Greek text, the names of the trees cited by the elders form puns with the sentence given by Daniel. The first says they were under a mastic, and Daniel says that an angel stands ready to cuthim in two. The second says they were under an evergreen oak tree, and Daniel says that an angel stands ready to saw him in two. The great difference in size between a mastic and an oak makes the elders' lie plain to all the observers. The false accusers are put to death, and virtue triumphs. More about Susanna

The theme of the Old Testament is reproduced here in an unusual way as a remarkably calm scene, so that not the physical urgency of the two old men. As always, so too is the biblical theme cause and pretext to bring the female nude in the picture. The beautifully presented slim female figure, here only scantily clad, a breast released between the yellow cloths, corresponds to the elegant Mannerist taste of the time, also concerning the soft contours, the Sfumato, which here belongs exclusively to the female figure. The upper body of Susanna placed almost diagonally in the picture, in contrast to the two almost vertically rendered male figures in the background. The right bearded old man looks down at the young beauty with his hand held high, which is supposed to indicate his persuasion. Only the left male figure makes eye contact with the viewer. More on this painting

Vincent Sellaer (1490–1564), was a Flemish Renaissance painter known for his mythological and religious subjects. His works stand out through their monumentality of form and their mixing of Italian and northern styles.

Very few biographical details of this artist are known with any level of certainty, other than that he flourished in Mechelen around 1538. 

While there is still no consensus among scholars, a majority believe that Vincent Sellaer should be identified with the artist to whom the early 17th century biographer Karel van Mander referred as Vincent Geldersman. Van Mander described Sellaer as a good painter of allegories, such as Leda with two eggs, Susanna and the elders, and Cleopatra with the asp. Van Mander mentioned him in his Life of Frans Minnebroer as one of the notable painters of Mechelen. While many known versions of a Leda and the Swan have been attributed to Sellaer, none has survived that depicts a Leda with eggs.

Some art historians such as G.J. Hoogewerff have speculated that Sellaer worked for some time in Brescia and may have visited other Italian cultural centres. This Italian stay would be situated in the years 1521 to 1524.


Scholars believe that Sellaer was the foremost painter in Mechelen, and his patrons were likely members of the court and the city’s Great Council. More on Vincent Sellaer







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Friday, February 14, 2020

01 Work, RELIGIOUS ART - Interpretation the bible, With Footnotes - #133

Italian master of the 17th century
Caritas romanaRoman Charity 
Oil on canvas. 
118 x 149 cm.
Private collection

The illustrated story goes back to the Roman author Valerius Maximus (14 AD-37 AD).  The exemplary story of a woman, Pero, who secretly breastfeeds her father, Cimon, after he is incarcerated and sentenced to death by starvation. 

It was recounted approximately in 1362 by Giovanni Boccaccio (1313-1375). After him, several hundred paintings, drawings and sculptures were created, which took up the theme again. It tells the erotic story of a young woman breastfeeding an older man. In the painting in a simple interior with a window on the top right, one sees in the center of the young woman with brown hair and flowing wide red-brown noble robes. In front of her kneels an old man with a full beard, in the profile to the left, who has crossed his hands on her lap and to which she extends her breast to breastfeed with her right hand. Particularly striking her white flesh and her almost white face. Your shiny, well-filled eyes she has directed laterally upwards. More on this painting


Painting in 17th-century Italy was an international endeavor. Large numbers of artists traveled to Rome, especially, to work and study. They sought not only the many commissions being extended by the Church but also the chance to learn from past masters. Most of the century was dominated by the baroque style, whose expressive power was well suited to the needs of the Counter-Reformation Church for affecting images.

The drama and movement that characterized the baroque—in sculpture and architecture as well as painting—can be first seen, perhaps, in the work of Caravaggio, who died in 1610. His strong contrasts of light and dark and unblinking realism were taken up by many artists, including the Italian Orazio Gentileschi, the Spaniard Jusepe de Ribera, and the Frenchmen Valentin de Boulogne and Simon Vouet, all of whom worked in Italy. Other artists carried Caravaggio’s so-called tenebrist style to northern Europe.

The more classical approach of the Carracci and their students Guercino and Domenichino was also an important force in 17th-century painting. It provided a foundation for the rational clarity that structured the work of French artists Nicolas Poussin and Claude Lorrain, both of whom worked in Rome for most of their lives. More on the ITALIAN SCHOOL, (17th century)




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Tuesday, February 11, 2020

01 Work, RELIGIOUS ART - Interpretation the bible, With Footnotes - #131

Giacinto Brandi, (1621–1691)
Christ in the Garden of Gethsemane, circa 1650
Oil on canvas
Height: 99 cm (38.9 ″); Width: 75 cm (29.5 ″)
Pinacoteca Vaticana

Gethsemane is an urban garden at the foot of the Mount of Olives in Jerusalem. In Christianity, it is the place where Jesus underwent the agony in the garden and was arrested the night before his crucifixion.

Christ in the Garden of Gethsemane refers to the events in the life of Jesus as recorded in the New Testament, between the Farewell Discourse at the conclusion of the Last Supper and Jesus' arrest. 

According to all four Gospels, immediately after the Last Supper, Jesus took a walk to pray. The gospels of Matthew and Mark identify this place of prayer as Gethsemane. Jesus was accompanied by three Apostles: Peter, John and James, whom he asked to stay awake and pray. He moved "a stone's throw away" from them, where He felt overwhelming sadness and anguish, and said "My Father, if it is possible, let this cup pass me by. Nevertheless, let it be as you, not I, would have it." Then, a little while later, He said, "If this cup cannot pass by, but I must drink it, your will be done!". He said this prayer three times, checking on the three apostles between each prayer and finding them asleep. He commented: "The spirit is willing, but the flesh is weak". An angel came from heaven to strengthen him. During his agony as he prayed, "his sweat was as it were great drops of blood falling down upon the ground".

At the conclusion of the narrative, Jesus accepts that the hour has come for him to be betrayed. More on Christ in the Garden

Giacinto Brandi (1621 – 19 January 1691) was an Italian painter of the Baroque era, active mainly in Rome and Naples. Born in Poli, in Lazio, he was trained in Rome in the studio of Alessandro Algardi, a noted sculptor, who noted that Brandi was more suited to painting. He joined the studio of Giovanni Giacomo Sementi. He traveled to Naples from 1638, and by 1647 had returned to Rome to work under Giovanni Lanfranco, where Brandi befriended Mattia Preti. The two latter artists would often collaborate.

His works are well distributed among baroque Churches of Rome. In 1647, he joined the Congregazione dei Virtuosi al Pantheon in Rome and from 1651 was inducted into the Accademia di San Luca for painters. In 1663, he frescoed the life of Saint Erasmus for the crypt of the cathedral of Gaeta. Some of his works are in Milan, Toledo, and Zaragoza. More on Giacinto Brandi





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