Tuesday, May 24, 2022

01 Work, Interpretation of the bible, Francesco Furinis Rachel giving birth to Joseph, with Footnotes - #178

Francesco Furini (Florence 1604-1646)
Rachel giving birth to Joseph
Oil on canvas
205.1 x 161.9cm (80 3/4 x 63 3/4in)
Private collection

Rachel is first mentioned in the Hebrew Bible in Genesis 29 when Jacob happens upon her as she is about to water her father's flock. She was the second daughter of Laban. Jacob had traveled a great distance to find Laban. His mother Rebekah had sent him there to be safe from his furious twin brother, Esau.

During Jacob's stay, he fell in love with Rachel and agreed to work seven years for Laban in return for her hand in marriage. On the night of the wedding, the bride was veiled and Jacob did not notice that Leah, Rachel's older sister, had been substituted for Rachel. Whereas "Rachel was lovely in form and beautiful," "Leah had tender eyes". Later Jacob confronted Laban, who excused his own deception by insisting that the older sister should marry first. He assured Jacob that after his wedding week was finished, he could take Rachel as a wife as well, and work another seven years as payment for her. When God “saw that Leah was unloved, he opened her womb”, and she gave birth to four sons.

Rachel was unable to conceive, and became jealous of Leah. She gave Jacob her maidservant, Bilhah, to be a surrogate mother for her. Bilhah gave birth to two sons that Rachel named and raised. Leah responds by offering her handmaid Zilpah to Jacob, and names and raises the two sons that Zilpah bears. After Leah conceived again, Rachel was finally blessed with a son, Joseph. More on Rachel

Francesco Furini (c. 1600 (or 1603) – August 19, 1646) was an Italian Baroque painter of Florence, noted for his sensual sfumato style in paintings of both secular and religious subjects.

He was born in Florence to an artistic family. Furini's early training was by Matteo Rosselli. Traveling to Rome in 1619, he also would have been exposed to the influence of Caravaggio.

Furini's work reflects the tension faced by the conservative, mannerist style of Florence when confronting then novel Baroque styles. He is a painter of biblical and mythological set-pieces with a strong use of the misty sfumato technique. An important early work, Hylas and the Nymphs (1630), features six female nudes that attest to the importance Furini placed upon drawing from life.


Furini became a priest in 1633 for the parish of Sant'Ansano in Mugello. Furini traveled to Rome again in the year before his death in 1646. More on Francesco Furini 




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Saturday, May 21, 2022

01 Painting, Olympian deities, Alexandra Manukyan's Forest Awakening, with footnotes # 38

Alexandra Manukyan
Detail; Forest Awakening, c. 2015
Oil on canvas
36 × 18 in, 91.4 × 45.7 cm
Private collection

Alexandra Manukyan
Forest Awakening, c. 2015
Oil on canvas
36 × 18 in, 91.4 × 45.7 cm

A Nymph of the Woods in Greek mythology and in Latin mythology is a minor female nature deity typically associated with a particular location or landform. Different from other goddesses, nymphs are generally regarded as divine spirits who animate nature, and are usually depicted as beautiful, young nubile maidens who love to dance and sing; their amorous freedom sets them apart from the restricted and chaste wives and daughters of the Greek polis.


A dryad is a tree nymph, specifically the nymphs of oak trees. The dryads of ash trees were called the Meliai... More on Nymph of the Woods

Alexandra Manukyan was born and raised in Armenia. She graduated from Fine Art College, and subsequently State Pedagogical University, where she majored in Teaching Fine Arts.

Upon Immigrating to Los Angeles in 1990, Alexandra's focus turned towards fashion. She graduated from fashion school and worked in the industry as a designer for two decades. She also studied Graphic Design in various colleges. Her experience in Graphic Design gave her the opportunity to branch into the entertainment industry by becoming a freelancer and creating movie posters for various entertainment agencies.

Alexandra began participating in numerous international, and local solo and group exhibitions since 2006. In 2012, Alexandra left the fashion and entertainment industries to focus on fine art. Today, she teaches from her studio and creates artwork using the technical, and creative experience she has gained over the years. More on Alexandra Manukyan





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Thursday, May 19, 2022

01 Work, Interpretation of the bible, Adriaen van der Werff's The repudiation of Hagar, With Footnotes - #177

Adriaen van der Werff
The repudiation of Hagar
Oil on canvas
87.6 x 69.1
Private collection

Hagar is a biblical person in the Book of Genesis Chapter 16. She was an Egyptian handmaid of Sarah, who gave her to Abraham "to wife" to bear a child. The product of the union was Abraham's firstborn, Ishmael, the progenitor of the Ishmaelites.
After Sarah gave birth to Isaac, and the tension between the women returned. At a celebration after Isaac was weaned, Sarah found the teenage Ishmael mocking her son, and demanded that Abraham send Hagar and her son away. She declared that Ishmael would not share in Isaac's inheritance. Abraham was greatly distressed but God told Abraham to do as his wife commanded because God's promise would be carried out through both Isaac and Ishmael.
The name Hagar originates from the Book of Genesis, and is only alluded to in the Qur'an. She is considered Abraham's second wife in the Islamic faith and acknowledged in all Abrahamic faiths. In mainstream Christianity, she is considered a concubine to Abraham. More on Hagar

Adriaen van der Werff (21 January 1659 – 12 November 1722) was an accomplished Dutch painter of portraits and erotic, devotional and mythological scenes. His brother, Pieter van der Werff (1661–1722), was his principal pupil and assistant.

At the age of ten he started to take lessons, two years later moving in with Eglon van der Neer, specializing in clothes and draperie. At the age of seventeen he founded his own studio in Rotterdam where he later became the head of guild of Saint Luc. In 1696, he was paid a visit by Johann Wilhelm, Elector Palatine and his wife, Anna Maria Luisa de' Medici. The couple ordered two paintings to be sent to Cosimo III of Tuscany, Anna Maria Luisa's father, in Florence. During the next years Van der Werff traveled regularly between Düsseldorf and his home town. In 1703, he became the official court painter and a knight, when his former teacher and predecessor Van der Neer died. Van der Werff, with a perfect technique, was paid extremely well by the Elector for his biblical or classical (erotic) paintings. In 1705, he painted a portrait of Gian Gastone de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany. In 1716, he lost his job when the Elector died because the treasury was empty.

Van der Werff became one of the most lauded Dutch painters of his day, gaining a European reputation and an enormous fortune. Arnold Houbraken, writing in 1718, considered him the greatest of the Dutch painters and this was the prevailing critical opinion throughout the 18th century: however, his reputation suffered in the 19th century, when he was alleged to have betrayed the Dutch naturalistic tradition. In the Victorian Age people could not appreciate his art, so most of his work went into the cellars of the Alte Pinakothek.

Van der Werff also practised as an architect in Rotterdam, where he designed a few houses. More on Adriaen van der Werff




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Tuesday, May 17, 2022

01 Work, RELIGIOUS ART - Francesco Francia's VIRGIN AND CHILD WITH SAN PETRONIO AND SAINT FRANCIS, With Footnotes - #184

Francesco Francia and his studio
Zola Predosa 1447/1450 - 1517 Bologna
VIRGIN AND CHILD WITH SAN PETRONIO AND SAINT FRANCIS
Oil on panel
63,4 x 47,2 cm ; 25 by 18 1/2  in.
Private collection

Saint Petronius (died ca. 450 AD) was bishop of Bologna during the fifth century. He is a patron saint of the city. Born of a noble Roman family, he became a convert to Christianity and subsequently a priest. As bishop of Bologna, he built the Church of Santo Stefano. More on Saint Petronius

The Virgin and Child with Saint Anne, or Madonna and Child with Saint Anne, is a subject in Christian art showing Saint Anne with her daughter, the Virgin Mary, and her grandson Jesus. This depiction has been popular in Germany and neighboring countries since the 14th century.

Saint Francis of Assisi (1181/1182 – 3 October 1226),[2] was an Italian Catholic friar, deacon and preacher. He founded the men's Order of Friars Minor, the women's Order of Saint Clare, the Third Order of Saint Francis and the Custody of the Holy Land. Francis is one of the most venerated religious figures in history.

Pope Gregory IX canonized Francis on 16 July 1228. He was designated Patron saint of Italy. He later became associated with patronage of animals and the natural environment. In 1219, he went to Egypt in an attempt to convert the Sultan to put an end to the conflict of the Crusades. By this point, the Franciscan Order had grown to such an extent that its primitive organizational structure was no longer sufficient. He returned to Italy to organize the Order. In 1223, Francis arranged for the first Christmas live nativity scene. According to Christian tradition, in 1224 he received the stigmata during the apparition of Seraphic angels in a religious ecstasy, which would make him the second person in Christian tradition after St. Paul (Galatians 6:17) to bear the wounds of Christ's Passion. He died during the evening hours of 3 October 1226. More on Saint Francis of Assisi

Francesco Francia, (1447 – January 5, 1517), was an Italian painter, goldsmith, and medallist from Bologna, who was also director of the city mint.[1][2]

He may have trained with Marco Zoppo and was first mentioned as a painter in 1486. His earliest known work is the Felicini Madonna, which is signed and dated 1494. He worked in partnership with Lorenzo Costa, and was influenced by Ercole de' Roberti's and Costa's style, until 1506, when Francia became a court painter in Mantua, after which time he was influenced more by Perugino and Raphael. He himself trained Marcantonio Raimondi, Ludovico Marmitta,[3] and several other artists; he produced niellos, in which Raimondi first learnt to engrave, soon excelling his master, according to Vasari. Raphael's Santa Cecilia is supposed to have produced such a feeling of inferiority in Francia that it caused him to die of depression. However, as his friendship with Raphael is now well-known, this story has been discredited.

He died in Bologna. His sons Giacomo Francia and Giulio Francia were also artists. Among his works is a Baptism of Christ in Lisbon


The relationship of St. Anne to the immaculate conception of her daughter is not explicit, but her mystical participation is implied. This should not be confused with the perpetual virginity of Mary or the virgin birth of Jesus. Although the belief was widely held since at least Late Antiquity, the doctrine was not formally proclaimed until December 8, 1854 when it was dogmatically defined in the Western Latin Rite by Pope Pius IX via his papal bull, Ineffabilis Deus. It was never explicitly so in the Eastern churches. More on Saint Anne, the Virgin and the Child Jesus 

Francesco Raibolini (1447 – January 5, 1517), called Francia, was an Italian painter, goldsmith, and medallist from Bologna, who was also director of the city mint.

He may have trained with Marco Zoppo and was first mentioned as a painter in 1486. His earliest known work is the Felicini Madonna, which is signed and dated 1494. He worked in partnership with Lorenzo Costa, and was influenced by Ercole de' Roberti's and Costa's style, until 1506, when Francia became a court painter in Mantua, after which time he was influenced more by Perugino and Raphael. He himself trained Marcantonio Raimondi and several other artists; he produced niellos, in which Raimondi first learnt to engrave, soon excelling his master, according to Vasari. Raphael's Santa Cecilia is supposed to have produced such a feeling of inferiority in Francia that it caused him to die of depression. However, as his friendship with Raphael is now well-known, this story has been discredited.

He died in Bologna. His sons Giacomo Francia and Giulio Francia were also artists. Among his works is a Baptism of Christ in Lisbon. More on Francesco Raibolini




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Saturday, May 14, 2022

01 Painting, Olympian deities, by the Old Masters, NORMAN LINDSAY's Leda and the Swan, with footnotes # 37

Norman Alfred William Lindsay (1879-1969)
Leda and the Swan
Ink on paper
15 x 23.5cm
Private collection

Leda, in Greek legend, usually believed to be the daughter of Thestius, king of Aetolia, and wife of Tyndareus, king of Lacedaemon. She was also believed to have been the mother (by Zeus, who had approached and seduced her in the form of a swan) of the other twin, Pollux, and of Helen, both of whom hatched from eggs. Variant legends gave divine parentage to both the twins and possibly also to Clytemnestra, with all three of them having hatched from the eggs of Leda, while yet other legends say that Leda bore the twins to her mortal husband, Tyndareus. Still other variants say that Leda may have hatched out Helen from an egg laid by the goddess Nemesis, who was similarly approached by Zeus in the form of a swan.The divine swan’s encounter with Leda was a subject depicted by both ancient Greek and Italian Renaissance artists; Leonardo da Vinci undertook a painting (now lost) of the theme, and Correggio’s Leda (c. 1530s) is a well-known treatment of the subject. More Leda and The Swan

Norman Alfred William Lindsay (22 February 1879 – 21 November 1969) was an Australian artist, etcher, sculptor, writer, editorial cartoonist, scale modeller, and an accomplished amateur boxer.

In 1895, Lindsay moved to Melbourne to work on a local magazine with his older brother Lionel. In 1901, he and Lionel, his older brother, joined the staff of the Sydney Bulletin, a weekly newspaper, magazine and review. His association there would last fifty years.

Lindsay travelled to Europe in 1909. In Naples he began 100 pen-and-ink illustrations for Petronius' Satyricon. Visits to the then South Kensington Museum where he made sketches of model ships in the Museum's collection stimulated a lifelong interest in ship models. The Lindsays returned to Australia in 1911.

Lindsay wrote the children's classic The Magic Pudding which was published in 1918. Many of his novels have a frankness and vitality that matches his art. In 1938, Lindsay published Age of Consent.

Cartoons, by Lindsay, were used both for recruitment and to promote conscription during World War I.
Lindsay also worked as an editorial cartoonist, notable for often illustrating the racist and right-wing political leanings that dominated The Bulletin at that time.

Lindsay influenced numerous artists, notably the illustrators Roy Krenkel and Frank Frazetta; he was also good friends with Ernest Moffitt. More on Norman Alfred William Lindsay



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01 Work, RELIGIOUS ART - Interpretation of the bible, Latin American Painting of Mary with Jesus, with Footnotes - #183

Latin American Painting, (South / Central American, 19th Century or later)
Mary with Jesus
Oil on Canvas
33 in. x 24 3/4 in.
Private collection

The Madonna and Child or The Virgin and Child is often the name of a work of art which shows the Virgin Mary and the Child Jesus. The word Madonna means "My Lady" in Italian. Artworks of the Christ Child and his mother Mary are part of the Roman Catholic tradition in many parts of the world including Italy, Spain, Portugal, France, South America and the Philippines. Paintings known as icons are also an important tradition of the Orthodox Church and often show the Mary and the Christ Child. They are found particularly in Eastern Europe, Russia, Egypt, the Middle East and India. More Madonna and Child

Latin American art is the combined artistic expression of South America, Central America, the Caribbean, and Mexico, as well as Latin Americans living in other regions.

The art has roots in the many different indigenous cultures that inhabited the Americas before European colonization in the 16th century. The indigenous cultures each developed sophisticated artistic disciplines, which were highly influenced by religious and spiritual concerns. Their work is collectively known and referred to as Pre-columbian art. The blending of Native American, African and European cultures has resulted in a unique mestizo tradition. More on Latin American Painting





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Thursday, May 12, 2022

01 Work, RELIGIOUS ART - Interpretation of the bible, Noël-Nicolas Coypel's HOLY FAMILY AND HOLY YEAR, With Footnotes - #182

Noël Nicolas Coypel (French, 1690-1734)
HOLY FAMILY AND HOLY YEAR IN A LANDSCAPE
Oil on Canvas
46.5 x 71 cm
Private collection

The Holy Family consists of the Child Jesus, the Virgin Mary, and Saint Joseph. Veneration of the Holy Family was formally begun in the 17th century by Saint François de Laval, the first bishop of New France, who founded a Confraternity.


Matthew and Luke narrate the episodes from this period of Christ's life, namely his Circumcision and later Presentation, the Flight to Egypt, the return to Nazareth, and the Finding in the Temple.[Joseph and Mary were apparently observant Jews, as Luke narrates that they brought Jesus with them on the annual pilgrimage to Jerusalem with other Jewish families. More on The Holy Family 

In Christianity, a Jubilee, or holy, is a special year of remission of sins and universal pardon. In Leviticus, a Jubilee year is mentioned to occur every fiftieth year, during which slaves and prisoners would be freed, debts would be forgiven and the mercies of God would be particularly manifest.

In Western Christianity, the tradition dates to 1300, when Pope Boniface VIII convoked a holy year, following which ordinary jubilees have generally been celebrated every 25 or 50 years, with extraordinary jubilees in addition depending on need. Christian Jubilees, particularly in the Latin Church, generally involve pilgrimage to a sacred site, normally the city of Rome. The Catholic Church declared the Extraordinary Jubilee of Mercy for 2015–2016. More on a Holy Year

Noël-Nicolas Coypel (17 November 1690 – 14 December 1734) was a popular French artist.

The son of Noël Coypel and half-brother to the more-famous painter Antoine Coypel, he was accredited to the Academie Royale in 1716. He was appointed a professorship in 1733, but died shortly thereafter in a domestic accident. More on Noël-Nicolas Coypel 





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Saturday, May 7, 2022

01 Work, RELIGIOUS ART - Henri Fantin-Latour's Stabat Mater, wh Footnotes - 181

Henri Fantin-Latour, (French, 1836-1904)
Stabat Mater, c. 1896
Oil on canvas
18 ¾ x 26 ½ in. (47.6 x 67.3 cm.)
Private collection

The Stabat Mater is a 13th-century Christian hymn to Mary, which portrays her suffering as Jesus Christ's mother during his crucifixion. Its author may be either the Franciscan friar Jacopone da Todi or Pope Innocent III. The title comes from its first line, "Stabat Mater dolorosa", which means "the sorrowful mother was standing" More on Stabat Mater

Henri Fantin-Latour (14 January 1836 – 25 August 1904) was a French painter and lithographer best known for his flower paintings and group portraits of Parisian artists and writers.  He was born Ignace Henri Jean Théodore Fantin-Latour in Grenoble, Isère. As a youth, he received drawing lessons from his father, who was an artist. In 1850 he entered the Ecole de Dessin. After studying at the École des Beaux-Arts in Paris from 1854, he devoted much time to copying the works of the old masters in the Musée du Louvre. Although Fantin-Latour befriended several of the young artists who would later be associated with Impressionism, including Whistler and Manet, Fantin's own work remained conservative in style.

Whistler brought attention to Fantin in England, where his still-lifes sold so well that they were "practically unknown in France during his lifetime". In addition to his realistic paintings, Fantin-Latour created imaginative lithographs inspired by the music of some of the great classical composers.

In 1875, Henri Fantin-Latour married a fellow painter, Victoria Dubourg, after which he spent his summers on the country estate of his wife's family at Buré, Orne in Lower Normandy, where he died on 25 August 1904. More on Henri Fantin-Latour




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Thursday, May 5, 2022

01 Work, RELIGIOUS ART - Albert von Keller's The resurrection of Jairus' daughter, with Footnotes - #180

Albert von Keller, (1844–1920)
The resurrection of Jairus' daughter, c. 1886
Oil on canvas
Height: 213 cm (83.8 ″); Width: 353.5 cm (11.5 ft)
Neue Pinakothek,  Munich, Germany

The Raising of Jairus' daughter is a combination of miracles of Jesus in the Gospels. 

Jairus, a patron or ruler of a Galilee synagogue, asked Jesus to heal his 12-year-old daughter. Jesus continued to the house, where he "saw a commotion, people weeping and wailing loudly." He informed all those present that the girl was not dead but asleep. He then went upstairs and restored the little girl to life. More on Jairus' daughter

Albert von Keller, (1844–1920)
Detail; The resurrection of Jairus' daughter, c. 1886
Oil on canvas
Height: 213 cm (83.8 ″); Width: 353.5 cm (11.5 ft)
Neue Pinakothek,  Munich, Germany

Albert von Keller (27 April 1844, Gais - 14 July 1920, Munich) was a German painter of Swiss ancestry. He specialized in portraits and indoor scenes. Female figures are a prominent feature of his work.

He was one of eight children born to Caroline Keller; who was divorced at the time of his birth. In 1852, his mother became a citizen of Bavaria and, by extension, so did he. Sometime in mid 1854, they relocated to Munich and he was enrolled at the Maximiliansgymnasium [de]. He graduated in 1863 and transferred to Ludwig Maximilian University to study law.

After 1865, he decided to pursue a career in art instead, but spent only a short time at the Academy of Fine Arts. He made numerous study trips throughout Germany, France, Italy and the Low Countries. From 1867 he worked at several different studios throughout Munich. He had his first showing at the Glaspalast in 1869 and became a member of Allotria [de], an artists' association, in 1873.

He exhibited at the Salon for the first time in 1883, while living in Paris. In 1886, he became a member of the new "Munich Psychological Society." Soon he began representing parapsychological motifs, connected to Christian themes, with visions and hallucinations. In 1892, he was one of the co-founders of the Munich Secession and served as Vice President from 1904 to 1920. He was also a board member of the Deutscher Künstlerbund. In 1898, he received the Knight's Cross of the Order of Merit of the Bavarian Crown, which entitled him to use the noble "von" in his name. More on Albert von Keller





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Monday, April 25, 2022

01 Work, RELIGIOUS ART - School of Prague's Ecce Homo, With Footnotes - 179

School of Prague - 1st half 17th century
Ecce Homo
Oil on copper
40.5 x 29.5cm
Private collection

Ecce homo are the Latin words used by Pontius Pilate in the Vulgate translation of John 19:5, when he presents a scourged Jesus Christ, bound and crowned with thorns, to a hostile crowd shortly before his Crucifixion. The Douay-Rheims Bible translates the phrase into English as "Behold the man!" [John 19:5] The scene has been widely depicted in Christian art. More on Ecce homo

School of Prague. Starting in the early 18th century a series of organizations were formed in Prague with an interest in promoting art and education. Thanks in part to their efforts, the Academy of Fine Arts was founded by Imperial Decree on September 10, 1799. It began with instruction in drawing. The academy was gradually expanded to include programs in architecture, painting, printmaking, and sculpture, among others. More on School of Prague




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