Thursday, January 27, 2022

06 Icons, RELIGIOUS ART - Icons from the Bible, Mother of God, with footnotes - #3

Dormition of the Virgin in Russia, the end of the 19th century

Composite of two Hardwood panels with two back side Sponki. Tempera on gesso, partial gilding. Very fine representation of lying on his deathbed Blessed Mother. To the bed is lined with the Twelve Apostles, partly with the Scriptures, some with censers. Behind the Mother of God is Christ before an aureole. He carries the soul of the Mother of God in the form of a small child. To its sides two angels. Against a backdrop of architecture. Rich Gold decorating garments. The rim is decorated in the form of a cloisonné enamel oklad. Vertical cracks rest. 44.5 x 37 cm A large icon with the Dormition of the Mother of God. Russia, late 19th century. Tempera on gesso on wood panel, partially gilded. The composition Organised around the bier That carries the lifeless body of the Mother of God. She is surrounded by the tweleve apostles. Christ holding the soul of His Mother in the form of a infant. Finely painted, accentuated with chrysography. Vertical crack restored. 44.5 x 37 cm.

Dormition of the Virgin in Russia, around 1900

Composite of two wooden boards with two back side Sponki. Oil on wood. Centrally located in the image field of the stationary body of the Mother of God and about Christ with the soul of Mary in her arms. The death camp is flanked on both sides by grieving apostles. Very finely executed painting. Loss of substance. 36 x 31 cm The Dormition of the Mother of God. Russia, ca. 1900. Oil on wood panel. Christ holding the soul of His Mother, the Latter in the form of an infant, her body lying on a bier flanked by the apostle. The beer is surrounded by the apostle. 36 x 31 cm.

The Dormition of the Mother of God. Russia, circa 1900

Composite of two wooden boards with two back side Sponki. Kowtscheg, tempera on chalk ground, partial gilding. Against a backdrop of architecture Our ​​Lady is on her deathbed. It is surrounded by two angels and the apostles. Behind her is Christ before an oval aureole with a baby, that embodies their soul, in their hands. Below proposes an angel the blasphemer Jechonias who wanted to overthrow the stretcher. The border is worked in the form of a cloisonné enamel oklad. Color losses. 53.5 x 43.5 cm Tempera on gesso on wood panel with Kovcheg, partially giled. Christ in a mandorla, holding the soul of His Mother, the Latter in the form of an infant, her body lying on a bier flanked by the apostle and two angels. Against An architectural setting. The border emulating contemporary enamel-work.

The Dormition of the Virgin Central Russia, early 20th century

Composite of two Hardwood boards. Kowtscheg. Tempera on chalk ground, background gilded. In the lower part of the Mother of God is on her deathbed. Behind her stands Christ with their soul, in the form of a winding child before an aureole. The bed is surrounded by the twelve apostles and two angels carrying candles. In a fiery red seraph. In the upper field, accompanied by ever an angel apostle floating on clouds. 31 x 27 cm With expertise of Bernhard Bornheim. The Dormition of the Mother of God. Central Russia, early 20th century. Tempera on gesso on wood panel with Kovcheg. The composition Organised around the bier That carries the lifeless body of the Mother of God. The bier surrounded by mourning apostles. At the back with her ​​Christian soul in his hands. A seraph above. With expertise. 31 x 27 cm.

Coronation of the Virgin Mary West Russia, early 19th century. 

Softwood single panel. Tempera on gesso. Centrally located in the image field depicted the kneeling Virgin. She is flanked by God the Father and Christ, holding the red crown on her head. At the top of the image of the Holy Spirit appears in the form of a dove. They scenery surrounded by cherubs. Min. Rest. 29 x 25 cm The Coronation of the Mother of God by the Holy Trinity. Russia, early 19th century. Egg tempera on gesso on wood panel. The Mother of God kneeling, flanked by Christ and God the Father. The two of them placing the crown on her head, The Dove of the Holy Spirit haloed above. Surrounded by cherubs.

Many panels icon Russia, 19th century. 

Composite of two Hardwood boards with two back side Sponki. Tempera on chalk ground, background gilded. In the center of the screen representation of the journey to Hades and resurrection of Christ. Among full-figure representation of Peter and Paul. On the sides of three frames with the Mother of God '' finding the Lost '', the apostle John, the Virgin of Smolensk, the Nicholas of Mozhaisk and selected saints. Gold rubbed. 40.5 x 36 cm A finely painted multi-partite icon. Russia, 19th century. Tempera on gesso on wood panel with golden background. The middle Depicted The Descent and the Resurrection of Christ. St. Peter and Paul below. Three fields on bothsides: the Mother of God "Seeking of the Lost", Apostle St. John, The Mother of God of Smolensk, Nicholas of Mozhaisk and two fields with Selected Saints. Losses. 40.5 x 36 cm.

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Friday, January 21, 2022

38 Works, RELIGIOUS ART - Artists' interpretation of Lot and His Daughters over the decades, with Footnotes - #136

Jan Wellens de Cock  (ca. 1470–1521)
Lot and his daughters, c. 1523
Oil on oak wood
Height: 36.2 cm (14.2 in); Width: 48.9 cm (19.2 in)
Detroit Institute of Arts

Jan Wellens de Cock (c. 1480 – 1527) was a Flemish painter and draftsman of the Northern Renaissance.

He was probably born in Leiden in Holland but settled in Antwerp. In 1506 Jan is recorded in the archives of the Guild of Saint Luke in Antwerp as having accepted an apprentice called 'Loduwyck'. It is unclear in which year Jan became a master. In 1507 de Cock was paid for painting angels and restoring the Holy Ghost at the altar of this guild in Antwerp Cathedral. These works were probably lost in the "beeldenstorm" of 1566. In 1511 the guild paid de Cock for cutting a woodblock for a print to use in the guild's procession. This is the only indication that de Cock, to whom several prints have been attributed, was indeed active as a block cutter.

In 1520 he was dean of the guild of Saint Luke. Jan's artistic activity has been the subject of considerable controversy, and there is not a single work that can be attributed to him with certainty. The works attributed to Jan generally belong to the so-called school of Antwerp Mannerism and/or show the influence of Hieronymus Bosch. More on Jan Wellens de Cock

Lot's sexual relationship with his daughters was a theme seldom explored in medieval art. In the sixteenth century, however, the story became popular with European artists, primarily due to its erotic potential. Depictions of Lot and his daughters in this era were generally charged with sexuality; the daughters would often be painted as nudes, and Lot would be portrayed (in contradiction to the Bible narrative) as "either a happily compliant figure or an aggressive seducer"

Lucas Cranach the Elder  (1472–1553)
Lot and his daughters, c. 1528
Oil on beech wood
Height: 56 cm (22 in); Width: 37 cm (14.5 in)
Kunsthistorisches Museum

Lucas Cranach the Elder (c. 1472 – 16 October 1553) was a German Renaissance painter and printmaker in woodcut and engraving. He was court painter to the Electors of Saxony for most of his career, and is known for his portraits, both of German princes and those of the leaders of the Protestant Reformation, whose cause he embraced with enthusiasm, becoming a close friend of Martin Luther. He also painted religious subjects, first in the Catholic tradition, and later trying to find new ways of conveying Lutheran religious concerns in art. He continued throughout his career to paint nude subjects drawn from mythology and religion. He had a large workshop and many works exist in different versions; his son Lucas Cranach the Younger, and others, continued to create versions of his father's works for decades after his death. Lucas Cranach the Elder has been considered the most successful German artist of his time. More Lucas Cranach the Elder

The daughters of the biblical patriarch Lot appear in chapter 19 of the Book of Genesis, in two connected stories. In the first, Lot offers his daughters to a Sodomite mob; in the second, his daughters sleep with Lot without his knowledge, and bear children.

Workshop of Jacob de Backer  (circa 1540/1545–1591/1600)
Lot and his daughters, c. between 1540 and 1600
Oil on panel
Height: 76.5 cm (30.1 in); Width: 103.3 cm (40.6 in)
Private collection

Jacob de Backer (c. 1555 – c. 1591) was a Flemish Mannerist painter and draughtsman active in Antwerp between about 1571 and 1585. Even though he died young at the age of 30, the artist was very prolific and an extensive body of work has been attributed to him. Art historians are not agreed on how many of these works are autograph or the product of a workshop. The works attributed to the artist or his workshop are executed in a late-Mannerist style clearly influenced by Italian models. More on Jacob de Backer

Master of the Prodigal Son
Lot and his Daughters
oil on panel
74.3 by 104.5 cm.; 29 1/4 by 41 1/8 in.
Het Koninklijk Museum voor Schone Kunsten Antwerpen

The Master of the Prodigal Son (fl. c.1530 – c.1560), named after the large altarpiece now in the Kunsthistorisches Museum in Vienna which depicts the Parable of the Prodigal Son, the Master of the present work comes very close in style to both Pieter Coecke van Aelst (1502-50) and Frans Floris (1517-1570). This stylistic affinity suggests that the artist was active in Antwerp during the second quarter of the 16th Century. The master often treated subjects from the Old Testament. More on The Master of the Prodigal Son
He was born in Antwerp and is considered to have run a workshop there with several pupils. His name is derived from a painting in Vienna. He is known for landscapes and religious works, and possibly travelled to Rome. Though a monogram of "LK" was discovered in one of his paintings, to conclude that this person was the Leonart Kroes mentioned as teacher in Karel van Mander's biography of Gillis van Coninxloo is incorrect. More on The Master of the Prodigal Son

Bonifazio Veronese  (1487–1553)
Lot and His Daughters, circa 1545
Oil on canvas
Height: 121.9 cm (47.9 in); Width: 167.6 cm (65.9 in)
Chrysler Museum of Art

Bonifacio Veronese (1487 – 19 October 1553) was an Italian Renaissance painter who was active in Venetian Republic. His work had an important influence on the younger generation of painters in Venice, particularly Andrea Schiavone and Jacopo Tintoretto

The artist was born in Verona from which his family moved to Venice around 1505. Here the young artist reputedly trained under Palma il Vecchio. He was initially a close follower of il Vecchio. He ran a large workshop in Venice, which could execute small devotional works as well as large painting projects. His early work also shows his knowledge of Giorgione and Titian.

He created a large series of narrative paintings for the Palazzo dei Camerlenghi.[2] It took 20 years to complete the project. 

His style was influenced by that of Giorgione and Titian. From the 1530s the artist introduced some figurative elements of central Italian origin derived mainly from Raphael. During those years he made a fortune in Venice[3] Many cassoni and furniture decorations are attributed to him.

He is said to have had a lasting influence on Andrea Schiavone and Tintoretto. He died in Venice. Bonifacio Veronese

This is an oil on canvas painting. In the foreground Lot and his two daughters, one facing the viewer on her father's lap pouring wine and the other partially turned away from the viewer. Two putto play behind the latter daughter: one is masked symbolizing deception, and the other is unmasked, symbolizing truth. The central background of the painting Lot and his daughters are shown fleeing Sodom, which is being consumed, along with Gomorrah, in a hail of fire and brimstone. Lot's wife turned back to look at Sodom and turned into a pillar of salt. More on this painting

School of Fontainebleau
Lot and His Daughters, 16th century
Oil on canvas
57 3/8 x 44 3/8 in. (145.75 x 112.73 cm)
Type: Paintings
Dallas Museum of Art

Joachim Wtewael  (1566–1638)
Lot and his Daughters, circa 1600
Oil on canvas
Height: 209 cm (82.2 in); Width: 166 cm (65.3 in)

Joachim Antonisz Wtewael (Netherlands, Utrecht, 1566-1638)
Lot and His Daughters, circa 1597-1600
Oil on canvas
64 × 81 in. (162.56 × 205.74 cm)

Jan Harmensz. Muller  (1571–1628)
Lot and His Daughters, circa 1600
Oil on panel
29 x 39 cm
Private collection

Jan Harmensz. Muller, 1571 - 1628, made drawings, engravings, and paintings. He also worked at his family's successful publishing business, The Gilded Compasses. His father, a printmaker and art dealer, first trained him. Hendrick Goltzius's Mannerist figure style also profoundly influenced Muller. Whether he actually apprenticed to Goltzius in Haarlem or learned by copying Goltzius's prints and drawings is unknown. Muller had contact with many artists practicing in Prague, which was a flourishing cultural center. This contact probably occurred as the result of Muller's ties to the Dutch sculptor Adriaen de Vries, who was working at Emperor Rudolf II's court there. De Vries and Muller were related by marriage. Though he made engravings based on his own designs, most seem to have been after works by Haarlem Mannerists such as Goltzius or by Prague artists, including de Vries and Hans von Aachen. Muller spent 1594 through 1602 in Naples and Rome, making engravings. Upon returning to Amsterdam, he abandoned this work and began managing his father's publishing business, which he had inherited. He managed The Gilded Compasses for the remainder of his life. Muller's will and inventories show that he also painted, though only one painting is firmly attributed to him today. More on Jan Harmensz. Muller

Wtewael, Joachim Antonisz. 1566-1638
Lot and his Daughters, between 1603 and 1608
oil on copperplate
15x20,5 cm

Joachim Anthoniszoon Wtewael (1566 – 1 August 1638) was a Dutch Mannerist painter and draughtsman, as well as a highly successful flax merchant, and town councillor of Utrecht. Wtewael was one of the leading Dutch exponents of Northern Mannerism, and his distinctive and attractive style remained largely untouched by the naturalistic developments happening around him. Wtewael was trained in the style of late 16th-century Haarlem Mannerism and remained essentially faithful to it, despite painting well into the early period of Dutch Golden Age.

He painted a mixture of large paintings on canvas, and tiny cabinet paintings on copper plates, the latter the more numerous and typically the most distinctive. There is also a group of mid-sized paintings, often on panel. In all these sizes he painted a mixture of conventional religious subjects and mythological ones, the latter with a strong erotic element. The Adoration of the Shepherds, Venus and Mars Surprised by Vulcan, and the Feast of the Gods as the wedding feasts of Cupid and Psyche, Peleus and Thetis, the latter often combined with the Judgement of Paris (below), and Lot and His Daughters, are some examples of these favourite subjects.

Emperor Rudolf II obtained his The Golden Age (now Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York). He had several children, and seems to have stopped painting for almost the last decade of his life, perhaps influenced by the illness and death of his wife. Like his brother he was a city councillor; as a member of the main Dutch Reformed Church he was involved in the struggles with the Remonstrants. His best known work, and almost his largest, is the near life-size Perseus and Andromeda in the Louvre. More on Joachim Anthoniszoon Wtewael

Joachim Wtewael (1566–1638)
Lot and his daughters, c. 1630
Oil on canvas
Gemäldegalerie  Blue pencil.svg wikidata:Q165631

Only two daughters are explicitly mentioned in Genesis, both unnamed. However, the Hebrew midrash The Book of Jasher describes another daughter by the name of Paltith, who is burned to death by the Sodomites for breaking their law against giving charity to foreigners.

Peter Paul Rubens  (1577–1640)
Lot and his daughters in a rock grotto, circa 1610
Oil on canvas
Height: 108 cm (42.5 in); Width: 146 cm (57.4 in)

It is a mark of Rubens’s genius that he employed quite different approaches in his two depictions of Lot and his Daughters. In the earlier Schwerin composition of around 1610 (See above), Lot is a garrulous drunk and not the passive victim of his daughters’ calculated actions as described in Genesis. He paws at one of the girls, pulling her blouse off her shoulder while eyeing her lustily, fully engaged in the seduction taking place. When returning to the subject several years later, probably around 1614, Rubens entirely reconceived it (See below). Whereas a note of ribald vulgarity suffuses the Schwerin painting, the present composition is more psychologically complex. Lot is obviously very drunk: his eyes glazed and his complexion reddened by wine, he slumps on the floor of the cave, hardly able to grasp the cup that his daughter offers him. A purplish-grey, fur-trimmed damask robe provides his only cover, shielding his lap. Bald and bearded, he rests one hand on a rock to steady himself. Elderly but strong and massively built, Lot is nonetheless powerless in the hands of his determined daughters: his evident physical strength is no match for their wiles, much as the young Jewish hero of Rubens’s Samson and Delilah sprawls helplessly asleep across the lap of his beguiling lover, as he is bound, shorn and blinded by the Philistines. More on this painting

Peter Paul Rubens  (1577–1640)
Lot and his Daughters, circa 1613 and circa 1614
Oil on canvas
190 x 225cm
Private collection

Sir Peter Paul Rubens (28 June 1577 – 30 May 1640) was a Flemish Baroque painter. A proponent of an extravagant Baroque style that emphasized movement, colour, and sensuality, Rubens is well known for his Counter-Reformation altarpieces, portraits, landscapes, and history paintings of mythological and allegorical subjects.
In addition to running a large studio in Antwerp that produced paintings popular with nobility and art collectors throughout Europe, Rubens was a classically educated humanist scholar and diplomat who was knighted by both Philip IV of Spain and Charles I of England.  More on Sir Peter Paul Rubens

In Genesis 19, Lot shows hospitality to two angels who arrive in Sodom, and invites them to stay the night at his house. However, the men of the city gather around the house and demand that Lot hand over his guests so they can "know them". Lot admonishes them for their wickedness, and offers the mob his two virgin daughters instead. When the mob refuses Lot's offer, the angels strike them with blindness, and then warn Lot to leave the city before it is destroyed.

Frans Floris The Elder
Lot and his daughters
oil on panel
76.5 by 67.5 cm.; 30 1/8 by 26 1/2 in.
Private collection

The pose and dress of the daughter embraced by Lot in the present painting derives from Floris' painting of the same subject in the Hermitage Museum, St. Petersburg (See below).

Floris, Frans (Frans de Vriendt). 1519/20-1570
Lot with his Daughters, c. 16th century
Oil on panel (oak)
102х175 cm
Hermitage Museum, St. Petersburg

Frans Floris, Frans Floris the Elder or Frans Floris de Vriendt (17 April 1519 – 1 October 1570) was a Flemish painter, draughtsman, print artist and tapestry designer. He is mainly known for his history paintings, allegorical scenes and portraits. He played an important role in the movement in Northern Renaissance painting referred to as Romanism. The Romanists had typically travelled to Italy to study the works of leading Italian High Renaissance artists such as Michelangelo, Raphael and their followers. Their art assimilated these Italian influences into the Northern painting tradition. More on Frans Floris

Hendrik Goltzius  (1558–1617)
Lot and his Daughters, c. 1616
Oil on canvas
Height: 140 cm (55.1 in); Width: 204 cm (80.3 in)

Hendrick Goltzius, or Hendrik, (January or February 1558 – 1 January 1617) was a German-born Dutch printmaker, draftsman, and painter. He was the leading Dutch engraver of the early Baroque period, or Northern Mannerism, lauded for his sophisticated technique, technical mastership and "exuberance" of his compositions. According to A. Hyatt Mayor, Goltzius "was the last professional engraver who drew with the authority of a good painter and the last who invented many pictures for others to copy". In the middle of his life he also began to produce paintings. More on Hendrick Goltzius

Lot and his daughters. Sitting under a tree. Lot's daughters are seducing their father. All three figures are depicted naked and sitting or laying on the ground. The daughter on the left is holding a wine jar. Lot is holding a wine-drinking cup in his right hand. Bottom left stands a small table with cheeses and bread. A little dog is sitting by it. In the background on the right Sodom and Gomorrah are burning. In front of the fire Lot's wife, who was turned into a pillar of salt, is standing. Behind the tree a fox looks on. More on this painting

Giovan Battista Langetti  (1635–1676)
Lot and his daughters, c. 17th century
Oil on canvas
Height: 136.8 cm (53.8 in); Width: 181.5 cm (71.4 in)
Private collection

In the present painting, the blending of Langetti's personal style with Neapolitan characteristics is evident in the artist's vibrant brushwork, and his dramatic use of light and chiaroscuro. Langetti's interest in human anatomy is also apparent in his textural depiction of Lot's musculature, which conveys a strong sense of realism.

A picture of similar dimensions was sold London, Christie's, 10 July 1981, lot 68, which depicted a subsequent scene from the story of Lot. This suggests that Langetti executed a series of canvases from this story. More on this painting

Giovanni Battista Langetti (1625–1676), also known as Giambattista Langetti, was an Italian late-Baroque painter. He was active in his native Genoa, then Rome, and finally for the longest period in Venice.
He first trained with Assereto, then Pietro da Cortona, but afterwards studied under Giovanni Francesco Cassana, appeared in Venice by the 1650s where he worked in a striking Caravaggesque style. He is thought to have influenced Johann Karl Loth and Antonio Zanchi. He painted many historical busts for private patrons in the Venetian territory and in Lombardy. He died at Venice in 1676. More on Giovanni Battista Langetti

Jan Brueghel the Elder  (1568–1625) 
Lot and his Daughters, c. around 1597
Oil on copper
Height: 26 cm (10.2 in); Width: 35.2 cm (13.8 in)

Orazio Gentileschi (workshop of)
Lot and His Daughters, ca. 1621 - 1623
Oil on canvas
120 x 168.5 cm

Follower Orazio Gentileschi
Lot and his Daughters
Oil on canvas
102.4 x 133.2 cm
Private collection

Gentileschi used a limited range of colours but created elegant combinations through the use of large, juxtaposed areas of colour for the clothes in shades of red, yellow, blue and white against a landscape background in which dark greys, blues and earth tones predominate. Also striking are the silver coloured wine flask and the golden wine dish on the ground on the left, which are brilliantly painted with regard to their surface textures and colours. More on this painting

Orazio Lomi Gentileschi (1563–1639) was an Italian painter. Born in Tuscany, he began his career in Rome, painting in a Mannerist style, much of his work consisting of painting the figures within the decorative schemes of other artists. After 1600, he came under the influence of the more naturalistic style of Caravaggio. He received important commissions in Fabriano and Genoa before moving to Paris to the court of Marie de Medici. He spent the last part of his life at the court of Charles I of England. He was the father of the painter Artemisia Gentileschi. More on Orazio Gentileschi

Attributed to Giovanni Andrea de Ferrari
Oil on canvas
138 x 115 cm
Private collection

FERRARI, Giovanni Andrea de, (b. ca. 1598, Genova, d. 1669, Genova). He was a prolific easel painter who painted many altarpieces and created a lyrical, richly coloured manner that influenced the later development of the Genoese Baroque. 

Ferrari's work consists primarily of religious subjects. Throughout the 1620s Giovanni Andrea painted several large canvases with scenes from the lives of the saints and drew on a number of influences. In 1634 Giovanni Andrea was made a member of the Accademia di San Luca in Rome, but there is no record of his being in Rome. His work during this decade includes the lunette painting the Miracle of St Bridget, the Madonna of the Rosary...

After the 1630s there are few dated pictures to establish a chronology for the artist. Moreover, while his handling changes his figure types remain for the most part consistent. In his later work, Giovanni Andrea withdrew from the mannerism of Strozzi and Ansaldo and achieved success with a more refined approach to religious narrative and psychology.

As he never left Genoa and had no family, Giovanni Andrea proved a particularly attentive teacher in his studio, which included Valerio Castello, Giovanni Battista Merano and possibly even Giovanni Benedetto Castiglione. More on Giovanni Andrea de Ferrari

Francesco Furini
Lot and his Daughters, Ca. 1634
Oil on canvas
Height: 123 cm; Width: 120 cm
 Museo Nacional del Prado

This work in Francesco Furini’s oeuvre and one of the most sensual and morbid of all Italian Baroque paintings. More on this painting

Francesco Furini (c. 1600 (or 1603) – August 19, 1646) was an Italian Baroque painter of Florence, noted for his sensual sfumato style in paintings of both secular and religious subjects. He was born in Florence to an artistic family. Furini's early training was by Matteo Rosselli. Traveling to Rome in 1619, he also would have been exposed to the influence of Caravaggio and his followers.

Furini's work reflects the tension faced by the conservative, mannerist style of Florence when confronting then novel Baroque styles. He is a painter of biblical and mythological set-pieces with a strong use of the misty sfumato technique. In the 1630s his style paralleled that of Guido Reni.

Furini became a priest in 1633 for the parish of Sant'Ansano in Mugello.

Freedberg describes Furini's style as filled with "morbid sensuality". His frequent use of disrobed females is discordant with his excessive religious sentimentality, and his polished stylization and poses are at odds with his aim of expressing highly emotional states. His stylistic choices did not go unnoticed by more puritanical contemporary biographers like Baldinucci. Pignoni also mirrored this style in his works.

Furini traveled to Rome again in the year before his death in 1646. More on Francesco Furini

Felice Torelli, Florence, Verona 1667-1748 Bologna
Lot and His Daughters
Oil on canvas
56 by 78 1/2 in.; 142.2 by 199.4 cm.
Private collection

Felice Torelli (9 September 1667 – 11 June 1748) was an Italian painter of the Baroque style, active mainly in Bologna.

Felice was initially apprenticed to Santi Prunati in Verona, then to Giovanni Gioseffo dal Sole in Bologna. In 1710, Torelli was one of the founders of the Accademia Clementina in Bologna, and during his time there, Giuseppe Maria Crespi was a member. 

He painted a Martyrdom of St. Maurelius for Ferrara Cathedral. He painted St Vincent in the act of curing a lunatic woman for the church of the Dominicans in Faenza. Other altarpieces were painted for churches in Rome, Turin, Milan, and other cities in Italy. More on Felice Torelli

Andrea Vaccaro
Lot and his Daughters
Oil on canvas,
179.5 by 257.5 cm.; 70 3/4  by 101 3/8  in.
Private collection

Rarely does Vaccaro achieve the pictorial refinement exemplified here: the sophisticated interplay between the three figures of Lot and his two daughters is set against the backdrop of a burning Sodom, as told in the Old Testament (Book of Genesis 19: 30-38). Vaccaro’s refinement in describing textures, in particular those of the still-life elements in this painting, is clearly visible through the painting’s discoloured varnish: the ornate ormolu urn held by the woman on the left contrasts with the glazed earthenware of the overturned jug just below it, and the artist convincingly portrays the delicate façon-de-venise wineglass held up by Lot. More on this painting

Andrea Vaccaro
Lot and his daughters, c. 1650
Oil on canvas
202 x 257 cm
Private collection

According to Lattuada, the present painting is one of the finest examples of the artist’s highly individualised mature style. The colour palette is bright and influenced by the stylistic tendencies of Roman Classicism during the 1660s.

The present painting may also be compared to a similar composition by Andrea Vaccaro of Lot and his daughters, with the figure of Lot in the reverse, in the Prado, Madrid. More on this painting

Andrea Vaccaro (baptised on 8 May 1604 – 18 January 1670) was an Italian painter of the Baroque period. Vaccaro was in his time one of the most successful painters in Naples, a city then under Spanish rule. Very successful and valued in his lifetime, Vaccaro and his workshop produced many religious works for local patrons as well as for export to Spanish religious orders and noble patrons. More Andrea Vaccaro

Daniel Neuberger the Younger
Lot and His Daughters, circa 1657
Partially gilt polychrome wax
42 by 32cm., 16½ by 12⅝in
Private collection

This unusually large modelled relief by Daniel Neuberger the Younger, is a rare survival of early sculpture in this most fragile of materials.

Born into an Augsburg family of wax modellers, Daniel Neuberger the Younger rose to significant prominence as an artist in mid-17th century Germany, receiving commissions from clients as eminent as Emperor Ferdinand III. Neuberger was renowned among his contemporaries not only for his intricate battle scenes - of which two survive in the Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna - but also for his talent in imitating other materials in his richly coloured waxes. The latter skill is showcased beautifully in the present relief, which renders the women's precious jewellery, as well as the metal of the amphora, to astonishing effect. More on Daniel Neuberger the Younger

Torri, Flaminio. 1621-1661
Lot and his Daughters, c. 17th century
Oil on canvas
121x183 cm
he State Hermitage Museum

Flaminio Torre (1620–1661) was an Italian Baroque painter of the Bolognese School, active during the Baroque period.

He was a pupil of Guido Reni, Giacomo Cavedone, and Simone Cantarini. He was also called Degli Ancinelli, and painted for churches in Bologna; including a Deposition from the Cross for S. Giorgio. Torre died in Modena. Among his pupils were Giulio (or Giuseppe) Cesare Milani, Giovanni Maria Viani, and Alessandro Badile. More on Flaminio Torre

Circle of Antonio Balestra (Verona 1666-1740)
Lot and his daughters
Oil on canvas
33 x 50¼ in. (83.8 x 127 cm.)
Private collection

Antonio Balestra (12 August 1666 – 21 April 1740) was an Italian painter of the Rococo period. Born in Verona, he first apprenticed there with Giovanni Zeffio. By 1690 he moved to Venice, where he worked for three years under Antonio Bellucci, then moved to Bologna and then to paint in Carlo Maratta's workshop in Rome. In 1694, he won a prize from the Accademia di San Luca. He later painted both in Verona and Venice; although his influence was stronger in the mainland. More on Antonio Balestra

Werff, Adriaen van der. 1659-1722
Lot and his Daughters, c. 1711
Oil on wood panel
44,5x34,5 cm
The State Hermitage Museum.

Adriaen van der Werff (21 January 1659 – 12 November 1722) was an accomplished Dutch painter of portraits and erotic, devotional and mythological scenes. His brother, Pieter van der Werff (1661–1722), was his principal pupil and assistant.

At the age of ten he started to take lessons, two years later moving in with Eglon van der Neer, specializing in clothes and draperie. At the age of seventeen he founded his own studio in Rotterdam where he later became the head of guild of Saint Luc. In 1696, he was paid a visit by Johann Wilhelm, Elector Palatine and his wife, Anna Maria Luisa de' Medici. The couple ordered two paintings to be sent to Cosimo III of Tuscany, Anna Maria Luisa's father, in Florence. During the next years Van der Werff traveled regularly between Düsseldorf and his home town. In 1703, he became the official court painter and a knight, when his former teacher and predecessor Van der Neer died. Van der Werff, with a perfect technique, was paid extremely well by the Elector for his biblical or classical (erotic) paintings. In 1705, he painted a portrait of Gian Gastone de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany. In 1716, he lost his job when the Elector died because the treasury was empty.

Van der Werff became one of the most lauded Dutch painters of his day, gaining a European reputation and an enormous fortune. Arnold Houbraken, writing in 1718, considered him the greatest of the Dutch painters and this was the prevailing critical opinion throughout the 18th century: however, his reputation suffered in the 19th century, when he was alleged to have betrayed the Dutch naturalistic tradition. In the Victorian Age people could not appreciate his art, so most of his work went into the cellars of the Alte Pinakothek.

Van der Werff also practised as an architect in Rotterdam, where he designed a few houses. More on Adriaen van der Werff

Domenico Fiasella
Lot and his Daughters
Oil on canvas
20 3/8 x 26 1/8 in. (52.3 x 66.3 cm.)
Private collection

Domenico Fiasella (12 August 1589 – 19 October 1669) was an Italian painter of the Baroque period, mainly active in Genoa. He was nicknamed Il Sarzana, after his birthplace.

He was born in c, the son of Giovanni Fiasella, a silversmith, who, noting his skills apprenticed him as a boy of 11 years to work with Aurelio Lomi in Genoa, and from there he moved to work with Giovanni Battista Paggi.

Around 1607 he left for Rome, where he frequented the Accademia del Nudo. His ability was first recognized by Guido Reni and Ciriaco Mattei, which led Domenico Passignano and Cavalier D'Arpino to employ him. The Marchese Vincenzo Giustiniani commissioned paintings from him.

He returned to Genoa by 1616, where he set up a prolific studio. He frescoed the Story of Esther for the Palazzo Lamellini alla Zecca in Genoa. He collaborated occasionally with the Flemish born painter Giacomo Legi who lived and worked in Genoa. He died in Genoa. More on Domenico Fiasella

The King James Version (KJV) and the New Revised Standard Version (NRSV) describe the older surviving daughter as "the firstborn", while the Contemporary English Version (CEV) uses "the older".

Lot and his Daughters, Sculpted in 1803
9 ½ × 9 ¼ inches · 240 × 235 mm
Private collection

This worked terracotta is a particularly ambitious model, showing the aged Lot being plied with drink by his two daughters. This model is unusual for depicting a Biblical scene, rather than an episode from Roman or Greek mythology. Nollekens has revelled in the complex psychology of the scene producing a remarkable sculpture which can be read fully in the round. Nollekens has modelled Lot in a corkscrew pose, his muscular torso turned with his left leg stretched behind him, one of his daughters is shown lying at his feet, her left arm reaching round to Lot’s back and her right hand gently placed on his right knee looking longingly up at him; this intimate pose gives a powerful intimation of the incestuous episode that would follow Lot’s acceptance of the drink being poured by the second daughter. Nollekens shows the second daughter standing over her father ampulla in hand dispensing wine, her sinuous left arm reaches behind Lot’s back and her beautifully articulated fingers rest on his left shoulder. The interlocking of the three figures makes the model legible from every angle, revealing Nollekens to be a master of narrative, each gesture suggestive of the manipulative nature of the daughter’s seduction of their father. Given its compositional complexity, its beautiful level of finish and the effecting nature of the subject, it is perhaps unsurprising that Nollekens chose to exhibit the model at the Royal Academy in 1803. More on this painting

Joseph Nollekens, (born Aug. 11, 1737, London, Eng.—died April 23, 1823, London), Neoclassical sculptor whose busts made him the most fashionable English portrait sculptor of his day.

At 13 Nollekens entered the studio of the noted sculptor of tombs and busts Peter Scheemakers, from whom Nollekens learned to appreciate the sculpture of antiquity. In 1760 he went to Rome, where David Garrick and Laurence Sterne were among the English visitors who sat for him. After his return to England in 1770 he became a member of the Royal Academy (1772) and was patronized by George III. Among his famous likenesses are those of George III, William Pitt, Charles James Fox, and Benjamin West. Many of his works were influenced by ancient Roman busts of the late Republic style. He personally preferred sculpting mythological works based on ancient prototypes, especially genteel but erotic Venuses delicately modeled in an almost Rococo manner. More on Joseph Nollekens

Francesco Hayez (1791-1882)
Lot and His Daughters, c. 1833
Oil on canvas
Public collection

Francesco Hayez (10 February 1791 – 21 December 1882) was an Italian painter, the leading artist of Romanticism in mid-19th-century Milan, renowned for his grand historical paintings, political allegories and exceptionally fine portraits.

Hayez came from a relatively poor family from Venice. He was brought up by his mother's sister, who had married a well-off shipowner and collector of art. From childhood he showed a predisposition for drawing, so his uncle apprenticed him to an art restorer. Later he became a student of the painter Francesco Maggiotto with whom he continued his studies for three years. He was admitted to the painting course of the New Academy of Fine Arts in 1806. In 1809 he won a competition from the Academy of Venice for one year of study at the Accademia di San Luca in Rome. He remained in Rome until 1814, then moved to Naples where he was commissioned by Joachim Murat to paint a major work depicting Ulysses at the court of Alcinous. In the mid-1830s he attended the "Salotto Maffei" salon in Milan.

Francesco Hayez lived long and was prolific. His output spanned both historic paintings, and Neoclassic style grand themes, either from biblical or classical literature. He also painted scenes from theatrical presentations of his day.  More Francesco Hayez

During the escape from Sodom, Lot's wife turns into a pillar of salt. Lot and his daughters take shelter in Zoar, but afterwards go up into the mountains to live in a cave. One evening, Lot's eldest daughter gets Lot drunk and has sex with him without his knowledge. The following night, the younger daughter does the same. They both become pregnant; the older daughter gives birth to Moab, while the younger daughter gives birth to Ammon.

According to Jewish tradition, Lot's daughters believed that the entire world had been destroyed, and that they were the only survivors. They therefore resorted to incest in order to preserve the human race. The basis of this idea is the comment of the elder daughter that "there is not a man in the earth" to give them children. However, commentators such as John Calvin have pointed out that the family had only recently dwelt in Zoar, so they must have known they were not the only people left alive. Calvin therefore concludes that the elder daughter's remark refers not to the whole earth, but only to the region in which they were living.

Paul Cézanne
Lot and his daughters, c. 1865
23.6 x 28.7 cm
Private collection

Paul Cézanne (19 January 1839 – 22 October 1906) was a French artist and Post-Impressionist painter whose work laid the foundations of the transition from the 19th-century conception of artistic endeavour to a new and radically different world of art in the 20th century.

Cézanne is said to have formed the bridge between late 19th-century Impressionism and the early 20th century's new line of artistic enquiry, Cubism. Cézanne's often repetitive, exploratory brushstrokes are highly characteristic and clearly recognizable. He used planes of colour and small brushstrokes that build up to form complex fields. The paintings convey Cézanne's intense study of his subjects. Both Matisse and Picasso are said to have remarked that Cézanne "is the father of us all". More on Paul Cézanne

Many scholars have drawn a connection between the two episodes of Lot's daughters. According to Robert Alter, this final episode "suggests measure-for-measure justice meted out for his rash offer."

Marc Chagall
Lot and his Daughters, 1958
Etching with hand water coloring on paper
21in. by 15.25in
Private collection

Marc Chagall
Detail; Lot and his Daughters, c. 1931
Oil on canvas
I have no further description, at this time

Marc Chagall
Lot and his Daughters, c. 1931
Gouache, paper
I have no further description, at this time

Marc Zakharovich Chagall (1887 – 28 March 1985) was a Russian-French artist. An early modernist, he was associated with several major artistic styles and created works in virtually every artistic medium, including painting, book illustrations, stained glass, stage sets, ceramic, tapestries and fine art prints.

Chagall saw his work as "not the dream of one people but of all humanity. According to art historian Michael J. Lewis, Chagall was considered to be "the last survivor of the first generation of European modernists". Using the medium of stained glass, he produced windows for the cathedrals of Reims and Metz, windows for the UN, and the Jerusalem Windows in Israel. He also did large-scale paintings, including part of the ceiling of the Paris Opéra.

Before World War I, he traveled between St. Petersburg, Paris, and Berlin. During this period he created his own mixture and style of modern art based on his idea of Eastern European Jewish folk culture. He spent the wartime years in Soviet Belarus, becoming one of the country's most distinguished artists and a member of the modernist avant-garde, founding the Vitebsk Arts College before leaving again for Paris in 1922.

He experienced modernism's "golden age" in Paris, where "he synthesized the art forms of Cubism, Symbolism, and Fauvism, and the influence of Fauvism gave rise to Surrealism". "When Matisse dies," Pablo Picasso remarked in the 1950s, "Chagall will be the only painter left who understands what colour really is" More on Marc Zakharovich Chagall

Josef Bato
Lot and his daughters, c. 1923
Oil on canvas
75*96 cm
Private collection

Joseph Bato was a painter, draughtsman and film director Joseph Bato was born József Bató in Budapest. He studied at the School of Applied Arts, Budapest and in 1906 joined the second generation of painters at the Nagybánya artists' colony. The following year, he took private classes under Henri Matisse and Georges Desvallièrs in Paris, completing his studies between 1909 and 1912 at the Hungarian Academy of Fine Arts. He then moved to Berlin, where he joined the Secession Group, experimenting with murals in the Neo-classical style and oil paintings influenced by both French Post-impressionism and German Expressionism. During the First World War, Bato returned to Hungary, serving on the Russian Front as an official Austro-Hungarian war artist. In 1916 he was invalided out and returned to Berlin, where he produced designs for the anti-war periodical Der Bildemann. Shortly after the war, he returned to Berlin, and in 1928 worked as a teacher at a private art school, also designing posters for cultural events. 

After arriving in London in 1936, Bato was one of only two foreign artists (the other being Austrian émigré Joseph Flatter), granted a Home Office sketching permit in February 1941 to record the ravages of war on London. 

In April his sketching permit was withdrawn when Hungary entered the war on the opposite side and Bato became an 'enemy alien'. 

In 1945, Bato became a leading art director at London Films (founded by Korda) working on more than 25 acclaimed productions. 

In his final years, Bato again focused on painting, while travelling extensively in France and Spain to study prehistoric cave paintings, which inspired his novel titled The Sorcerer, about the adventures of a Cro-Magnon man, published posthumously in the USA in 1976. Joseph Bato died in London, England in 1966. More on Joseph Bato

Otto Dix
Lot and His Daughters, c. 1939
Oil on canvas
Ludwig Museum, Aachen, Germany

Otto Dix, (born December 2, 1891, Untermhaus, Thuringia, Germany—died July 25, 1969, Singen, Baden-Württemberg, Germany), German painter and engraver who mixed compassion and Expressionist despair to create works harshly critical of society. He was associated and exhibited with the Neue Sachlichkeit group of painters.

Son of a railway worker, Dix was apprenticed to a decorative artist and received training in Dresden. An Impressionist at first, he experimented with various trends in modern art until he arrived at a mordantly individual style, a nightmarish vision of contemporary social reality.  In 1924 he etched a 50-plate series recording the horrors of war.

Appointed a professor at the academy in Dresden (1927), Dix was elected to the Prussian Academy (1931). The Nazi regime, however, incensed at his antimilitary works, cancelled these affiliations and barred him from exhibiting. He was jailed in 1939 on a charge of complicity in a plot on Adolf Hitler’s life, but in 1945 he was drafted into the home guard army at the age of 53. He was captured and released by the French. Dix later turned to religious mysticism, as in Saul and David (1945) and Crucifixion (1946). More on Otto Dix

A number of commentators describe the actions of Lot's daughters as rape. According to Esther Fuchs, the text presents Lot's daughters as the "initiators and perpetrators of the incestuous 'rape'." Alter agrees, adding that when the elder daughter says "let us lie with him", the meaning of the Hebrew verb in this context "seems close to 'rape'." More on Lot and His Daughters

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