Sunday, August 7, 2022

01 Painting, Olympian deities, Louis Welden Hawkins' Muse Erato on a Deserted Beach, with footnotes # 44

Louis Welden Hawkins (French, 1849–1910)
Muse Erato on a Deserted Beach (Spirit of the Waves)
Oil on canvas
17 x 21 3/4 in. (43.2 x 8.6cm)
Private collection

In Greek mythology, Erato is one of the Greek Muses. The name would mean "desired" or "lovely", if derived from the same root as Eros, as Apollonius of Rhodes playfully suggested in the invocation to Erato that begins Book III of his Argonautica.

Erato is the Muse of love poetry. In the Orphic hymn to the Muses, it is Erato who charms the sight. Since the Renaissance she has mostly been shown with a wreath of myrtle and roses, holding a lyre, or a small kithara, a musical instrument often associated with Apollo. Other representations may show her holding a golden arrow, reminding one of the "eros", the feeling that she inspires in everybody, and at times she is accompanied by the god Eros, holding a torch. More on Erato

Louis Welden Hawkins (1849–1910) was born in Germany of English parents, later taking French nationality. He was a detailed Symbolist painter.

Hawkins was born in Stuttgart, Germany on 1 July 1849.  He moved to France and later took French nationality. Hawkins attended the Académie Julian in Paris and rose to fame after his expositions in the Salon de la Société des Artistes Francais. His first works were shown in the Salon in 1881. After that, expositions followed at the Salon de la Société des Beaux Artes (1894–1911), the Salon de la Rose+Croix (1894–95) and La Libre Esthétique in Brussels. He lived for a period with Camille Pelletan, a radical socialist politician, and he continued to move in radical circles. In his Portrait of Séverine (1895), he shows a popular journalist, Caroline Rémy (1855-1929) who was a famous defender of humanitarian causes. He was also friendly with artists such as James Abbott McNeill Whistler and Auguste Rodin, whose portrait he painted.

He spent his last years in Brittany, where he painted mostly landscapes.

Louis Welden Hawkins died on 1 May 1910 and was honoured a year later at the Salon Nationale. More on Louis Welden Hawkins





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Saturday, July 23, 2022

01 Work - Painting from Norse mythology, Edward Robert Hughes' DREAM IDYLL (A VALKYRIE), with footnotes - #7

Edward Robert Hughes
DREAM IDYLL (A VALKYRIE), c. 1902
Gouache and pastel on stretched paper
43 1/4 by 31 1/8 in., 109.5 by 79 cm
Private collection

In Norse mythology, a valkyrie (from Old Norse valkyrja "chooser of the slain") is one of a host of female figures who choose those who may die in battle and those who may live. Selecting among half of those who die in battle, the valkyries bring their chosen to the afterlife hall of the slain, Valhalla, ruled over by the god Odin. There, the deceased warriors become einherjar. When the einherjar are not preparing for the events of Ragnarök, the valkyries bear them mead. Valkyries also appear as lovers of heroes and other mortals, where they are sometimes described as the daughters of royalty, sometimes accompanied by ravens and sometimes connected to swans or horses. More on the Valkyrie

Edward Robert Hughes RWS (5 November 1851 – 23 April 1914) was an English painter who worked prominently in watercolours. He was influenced by his uncle, and eminent Pre-Raphaelite, Arthur Hughes. Having settled on his career choice, Edward Hughes attended Heatherley's in London to prepare himself for the chance of auditioning for the Royal Academy School. Hughes became a student at the Royal Academy School in 1868. While Pre-Raphaelitism played an influential part in shaping Hughes work, Aestheticism is also seen in his paintings.

Edward Hughes is widely known for his works Midsummer Eve and Night With Her Train of Stars yet he built a career as a portrait painter to the upper classes. In addition to being an accomplished artist himself, Edward Hughes was also a studio assistant to the elder artist and Pre-Raphaelite William Holman Hunt. Hunt himself suffered from glaucoma. Two of the paintings that Hughes worked on with Hunt were The Light of the World, and The Lady of Shalott. On his own he experimented with ambitious techniques and was a perfectionist.

Hughes held several important offices within the artistic community over his life time such as becoming a member of the Art Workers Guild in 1888, and was on their committee from 1895–1897. He was elected to Associate Membership of The Royal Water Colour Society (ARWS) on February 18, 1891.

Edward Hughes moved to St Albans, Hertfordshire, where he was later stricken with appendicitis; he died after surgery on April 23, 1914 in his home. More on Edward Robert Hughes




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01 Paintings, Olympian deities, Prague School's Venus, Bacchus and Cupid, with footnotes # 43

Prague School, early 17th century followers of Hans von Aachen
Detail; Venus, Bacchus and Cupid
Oil on canvas
 h: 67 w: 57.50 cm
Private collection

Prague School, early 17th century followers of Hans von Aachen
 Venus, Bacchus and Cupid
Oil on canvas
 h: 67 w: 57.50 cm
Private collection

Venus and Love/ Venus and Cupid. Different tales exist about the origin of Venus and Cupid. Some say that Venus, the goddess of love and beauty, had a love affair with Mars, the god of war. Out of this relationship, Cupid was born. 

Cupid has attributes from both of his parents. Like his mother he is considered to be the god of love, or more precisely, the god of falling in love. He is portrayed as an innocent little child with bow and arrows. He shoots arrows to the heart, and awakening a love that you’re powerless to resist.

Venus and Cupid are often shown in intimate poses, reflecting the unique love between mother and child. More Venus and Love

Dionysus is the god of the grape harvest, winemaking and wine, of ritual madness, fertility, theatre and religious ecstasy in Greek mythology. Alcohol, especially wine, played an important role in Greek culture with Dionysus being an important reason for this life style. His name shows that he may have been worshipped as early as c. 1500–1100 BC by Mycenean Greeks. His origins are uncertain, and his cults took many forms; some are described by ancient sources as Thracian, others as Greek. In some cults, he arrives from the east, as an Asiatic foreigner; in others, from Ethiopia in the South. He is a major, popular figure of Greek mythology and religion, and is included in some lists of the twelve Olympians. Dionysus was the last god to be accepted into Mt. Olympus. He was the youngest and the only one to have a mortal mother.
Also known as Bacchus, the name adopted by the Romans and the frenzy he induces, bakkheia. His wand is sometimes wound with ivy and dripping with honey. It is a beneficent wand but also a weapon, and can be used to destroy those who oppose his cult and the freedoms he represents. More on Bacchus

Hans von Aachen (1552 – 4 March 1615) was a German painter who was one of the leading representatives of Northern Mannerism.

Hans von Aachen was a versatile and productive artist who worked in many genres. He was successful as a painter of princely and aristocratic portraits, and further painted religious, mythological and allegorical subjects. Known for his skill in the depiction of nudes, his eroticized mythological scenes were particularly enjoyed by his principal patron, Emperor Rudolf II. These remain the works for which he is best known. He also painted a number of genre paintings of small groups of figures shown from the chest upwards.

The life and work of Hans von Aachen bear unique witness to the cultural transfer between North, South and Central Europe in the late 16th and early 17th centuries. After training in the tradition of Netherlandish Renaissance painting he moved to Italy in 1574, for about 14 years, mainly working in Venice. He returned in 1587 to his native Germany. His final years were spent in Prague. The combination of the Netherlandish realism of his training and the Italian influences gained during his travels gave rise to his unique painting style. More on Hans von Aachen



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01 Work, CONTEMPORARY Interpretation of the Bible! Jules Pascin's Waiting for the prodigal son, with Footnotes - #54

Jules Pascin,  (1885-1930)
L'attente de l'enfant prodigue/ Waiting for the prodigal son, c. 1918
Oil on canvas
25 5/8 x 31 7/8 in. (65 x 81 cm.)
Private collection

The Parable of the Prodigal Son is one of the parables of Jesus Christ, which he shares it with his disciples, the Pharisees and others.

In the story, a father has two sons. The younger son asks for his inheritance and after wasting his fortune, becomes destitute. He returns home with the intention of begging his father to be made one of his hired servants, expecting his relationship with his father is likely severed. The father welcomes him back and celebrates his return. The older son refuses to participate. The father reminds the older son that one day he will inherit everything. But, they should still celebrate the return of the younger son because he was lost and is now found. More on the prodigal son

Jules Pascin, original name Julius Pincas, (born March 31, 1885, Vidin, Bulgaria—died June 1, 1930, Paris, France), Bulgarian-born American painter, renowned for his delicate draftsmanship and sensitive studies of women.


Born of Italian Serbian and Spanish parents, Pascin was educated in Vienna before he moved to Munich, where he attended art school in 1903. Beginning in 1904, his drawings were regularly published in satiric journals. Pascin, in 1905, moved to Paris, where he continued to produce tragically satiric drawings of the demimonde. He was embraced by members of the Parisian art world.

To avoid service in the Bulgarian army, at the outbreak of World War I Pascin traveled for a time in the United States. He became a U.S. citizen in 1920 and returned to Paris later that year. There he began to create a series of large-scale, representational, and very sensitively drawn biblical and mythological paintings. He was a financially successful artist, but he continued to lead a life of debauchery and excess. On the eve of an important one-man show of his work, Pascin hanged himself. More on Jules Pascin




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Wednesday, July 20, 2022

01 Work, Interpretation of the bible, Spanish Colonial's Saint Barbara, With Footnotes - 191

Spanish Colonial (Cuzco School)
Saint Barbara
Oil on Relined Canvas
45" H x 36" W 
Private collection

The castle tower, and the sword that took her head, are the symbols of St. Barbara.

Saint Barbara is a former Christian saint and virgin martyr believed to have lived in Asia Minor in the 3rd century. Her story dates to the 7th century and is retold in the Golden Legend. It is as follows: Dioscurus, the father of Barbara, was a heartless nobleman who had a tower built so that he could lock his daughter away to deter suitors. At first the tower only had two windows; however, Barbara persuaded the workmen to add a third when her father wasn't looking. She also secretly admitted a priest disguised as a doctor, who baptized her to become Christian. When her father returned, Barbara declared that the three windows symbolized the Father, Son, and Holy Ghost who ignited her soul. Dioscurus grew enraged and chased his daughter who had fled the tower. She hid in the crevice of a rock; however, a shepherd told her father of her hiding place. Once found, Barbara was dragged out by the hair and beaten by her father who next handed her over to the Roman authorities. She refused to renounce her Christian beliefs and was tortured. Miraculously, at the moment of her execution by her father's sword, he was struck by lightning, his body devoured by fire. More on Saint Barbara 

The Cuzco School (Escuela Cuzquena) was a Roman Catholic artistic tradition which originated following the 1534 Spanish Conquest of the Inca Empire and continued during the Colonial Period in the sixteenth, seventeenth, and eighteenth centuries. Though based in Cusco, Peru (the former capital of the Inca Empire), the Cuzco School extended to other cities of the Andes, present day Bolivia, and Ecuador. Today it is regarded as the first artistic center that taught European visual art techniques in the Americas. The primary intention of Cuzco School paintings was to be didactic. Hoping to convert the Incas to Catholicism, the Spanish sent religious artists to Cusco who created a school for the Quechua peoples and mestizos. Interestingly, Cusquena art was created by the indigenous as well as Spanish creoles. In addition to religious subjects, the Cuzco School expressed their cultural pride with paintings of Inca monarchs. Despite the fact that Cuzco School painters had studied prints of Flemish, Byzantine, and Italian Renaissance art, these artists' style and techniques were generally freer than that of their European models. More on The Cuzco School



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Monday, July 18, 2022

01 Photograph, Tales of Mermaids, Roberto Manetta's The black mermaid, with Footnotes, #17

Roberto Manetta, Maui Hawaii
The black mermaid, 2013
Photograph
100x70 cm

A mermaid is a marine creature with the head and upper body of a female human and the tail of a fish. Mermaids appear in the folklore of many cultures worldwide. The first stories appeared in ancient Assyria. Mermaids can be benevolent or beneficent.

Roberto Manetta is a traveling freelance photographer, Film and digital photography, since 1999. "No digital manipulation,only photography My passion comes from nature, adventure stories, fantasy films that have contributed phenomenally to my project ideas and the major part of my photographs. I am always very attentive, in all of my movements, in everything surrounding me. I often dream about adventures, fairy tales and mythological women. I look around at the objects surrounding me, with attention, searching for a link between a nude body more than a face. Geometric lines and original compositions are always at the centre of my attention when I launch upon a new project. I don’t really like the classic approach to nude photography. During the years I tried to maintain in all my productions a quality that re-conducted to classical photography, the one which is created without the need of much digital elaboration" More on Roberto Manetta




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01 Work, Interpretation of the bible, FOLLOWER OF BERNARDINO LUINI's MADONNA AND CHILD, With Footnotes - 190

FOLLOWER OF BERNARDINO LUINI
MADONNA AND CHILD
Oil on panel
35¾ by 26 in.; 90.8 by 66 cm.
Private collection

The Madonna and Child or The Virgin and Child is often the name of a work of art which shows the Virgin Mary and the Child Jesus. The word Madonna means "My Lady" in Italian. Artworks of the Christ Child and his mother Mary are part of the Roman Catholic tradition in many parts of the world including Italy, Spain, Portugal, France, South America and the Philippines. Paintings known as icons are also an important tradition of the Orthodox Church and often show the Mary and the Christ Child. They are found particularly in Eastern Europe, Russia, Egypt, the Middle East and India. More Madonna and Child

Bernardino Luini (c. 1480/82 – June 1532) was a North Italian painter from Leonardo's circle. Both Luini and Giovanni Antonio Boltraffio were said to have worked with Leonardo directly; he was described to have taken "as much from Leonardo as his native roots enabled him to comprehend".[1] Consequently, many of his works were attributed to Leonardo. He was known especially for his graceful female figures with elongated eyes, called Luinesque by Vladimir Nabokov. More on Bernardino Luini





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Saturday, July 9, 2022

04 Works, Helenic Carvings & Sculpture, With Footnotes #6

A SOUTHERN GERMAN OR NORTH ITALIAN EARLY 17TH CENTURY GILT BRONZE STATUETTE OF MINERVA
Haut. (bronze) 15,5 cm, haut. (base) 9 cm; height (bronze) 6 in., height (base) 3 1/2 in.
Private Collection

Minerva is the Roman goddess of wisdom and strategic warfare and the sponsor of arts, trade, and strategy. From the second century BC onward, the Romans equated her with the Greek goddess Athena,[1] though the Romans did not stress her relation to battle and warfare as the Greeks did. More on Minerva

Italian School of the eighteenth century
The Portrait of a condottiere (leader) as Hercules
Terracotta,
h: 66 w: 56 d: 40 cm 
Private Collection

Hercules (known in Greek as Heracles or Herakles) is one of the best-known heroes in Greek and Roman mythology. His life was not easy–he endured many trials and completed many daunting tasks–but the reward for his suffering was a promise that he would live forever among the gods at Mount Olympus. More on Hercules

Condottiere, plural Condottieri, is a leader of a band of mercenaries engaged to fight in numerous wars among the Italian states from the mid-14th to the 16th century. The name was derived from the condotta, or “contract,” by which the condottieri put themselves in the service of a city or of a lord.

This bust of embossed terracotta presents all the attractions of a portrait of a high-ranking prince of the Renaissance. However, the artist, unfortunately unknown, has merged two different iconographic types, both of which have the will to manifest the authority of the person represented: The man is indeed wearing the famous attribute of 'Hercules, the Skin of the Lion Of Nemea, whose legs intersect on the thorax. This tradition of representation as a man of power, endowed with the attributes of the Greek hero, became widespread in the Hellenistic period: the museums of the Louvre and the Capitol retain one, a bust of Mithridates VI Eupator, Sovereign of the kingdom of Pergamon (132 and 63 BC), the other of the Roman Emperor Commodus endowed with lion skin and even a club. More condottiere as Hercules

Italian School 18th century. The Neapolitan school was very influenced by the Baroque style, along with Caravaggio (paintings by Fracanzano, Saint-Pierre repentant (The penitent Saint Peter), Solimena, L’Annonciation (The Annunciation), Giordano, La Vierge adorant l’Enfant (The Virgin Adoring the Child)…)

Classicism is evident in various ways in the paintings of Vanni, Mola, Agar et l’Ange (Agar and the Angel), Badalocchio or Lorenzo Lippi with the superb Allégorie de la simulation (The Allegory of Simulation).

Finally the Venetian school from the late 18th century is also represented by two of its vedute [stars]: Guardi and the superb Apothéose de la maison Pisani (Apotheosis of the Pisani Family) by Giambattista Tiepolo. More on Italian School 18th century

Eugène Ladreyt Sauzet, 1832 - 1898
"The Judgment of Paris" 
Terracotta 
Titled '' Judgment of Paris '' based 
h: 50 w: 46 d: 20 cm 
Private Collection 

THE JUDGEMENT OF PARIS was a contest between the three most beautiful goddesses of Olympos--Aphrodite, Hera and Athena--for the prize of a golden apple addressed "To the Fairest."

The story began with the wedding of Peleus and Thetis which all the gods had been invited to attend except for Eris, goddess of discord. When Eris appeared at the festivities she was turned away and in her anger cast the golden apple amongst the assembled goddesses addressed "To the Fairest." Three goddesses laid claim to the apple--Aphrodite, Hera and Athena. Zeus was asked to mediate and he commanded Hermes to lead the three goddesses to Paris of Troy to decide the issue. The three goddesses appearing before the shepherd prince, each offering him gifts for favour. He chose Aphrodite, swayed by her promise to bestow upon him Helene, the most beautiful woman, for wife. The subsequent abduction of Helene led directly to the Trojan War and the fall of the city. More on The judgment of Paris

Eugène Ladreyt is also a sculptor known for his statuary humor, under the Second Empire. This little terracotta illustrates his taste for the fashion trend that emerged during the period of the Directory, that of the "Incroyables et Merveilleuses": the famous protagonists of the Greek myth of the Judgment of Paris, half camouflaged in a cleverly modeled grove - As if to hide the immodest behavior of the goddesses, dressed in "Greek" costumes. The presence of many contemporary attributes, such as an umbrella, frills and ribbon and the broad hats transforms this tragic scene that sealed the fate of Troy in a satirical scene. More The Judgment of Paris

Eugène Ladreyt born onin Sauzet (Drôme) and died onin Paris is a cartoonist , sculptor and ceramist French .

Eugène was passionate about drawing since his childhood. His parents having opposed any artistic career, he enlisted in the army before working for a railway company and then at the offices of Mont-de-Piété in Paris .

Self- taught artist, Ladreyt began to publish his works in 1859 3 . The following year, he produced several drawings for the Fun Journal and thus began his collaboration with numerous newspapers and satirical magazines.

From 1876 , he gradually abandoned drawing in favor of sculpture but remained faithful to scenes of manners and humorous compositions . He thus produced a large number of statuettes and groups in polychrome terracotta. He gave several copies to the Musée de Valence and to that of Montélimar.

His work earned him an honorable mention at the Universal Exhibition of 1878 and a silver medal at that of 1885 8 as well as the awards of academy officer 9 in 1890 10 .

Eugène Ladreyt died in Paris on March 28, 1898. More on Eugène Ladreyt

 Eugène Marioton, Paris, 1854 - 1933 
The Farewells of Jason, c. 1882 
Terracotta relief
h: 29,70 w: 37,50 d: 3,80 cm
Private Collection

Jason, in Greek mythology, leader of the Argonauts and son of Aeson, king of Iolcos in Thessaly. His father’s half-brother Pelias seized Iolcos, and thus for safety Jason was sent away to the Centaur Chiron. Returning as a young man, Jason was promised his inheritance if he fetched the Golden Fleece for Pelias, a seemingly impossible task. After many adventures Jason abstracted the fleece with the help of the enchantress Medea, whom he married. On their return Medea murdered Pelias, but she and Jason were driven out by Pelias’ son and had to take refuge with King Creon of Corinth. Later Jason deserted Medea for Creon’s daughter; this desertion and its consequences formed the subject of Euripides’ Medea. More on Jason

Eugène Marioton, born in Paris on April 7, 1857, was a French sculptor working primarily in the medium of bronze. His works follow the traditions of Neoclassicism, consisting of small, cast bronze sculptures of historic French leaders as well as ancient Greek and Roman figures. He participated regularly in the Society of French artists, jurying the sculpture section of the salon in 1905. Before his death in 1933, Marioton received several accolades for his work, including a prize from the Society of Fine Arts and a young artist grant from the General Council of the Seine in 1884. More on Eugène Marioton

Unsigned, 19th century
The wife of Dionysus, Princess Ariadne, on a panther
Ivory
H 7 cm.
Private Collection

Dionysus  is the god of the grape harvest, winemaking and wine, of ritual madness, fertility, theatre and religious ecstasy in Greek mythology. Wine played an important role in Greek culture with the cult of Dionysus the main religious focus for unrestrained consumption. He may have been worshipped as early as c. 1500–1100 BC by Mycenean Greeks; other traces of the Dionysian-type cult have been found in ancient Minoan Crete. His origins are uncertain, and his cults took many forms; some are described by ancient sources as Thracian, others as Greek. In some cults, he arrives from the east, as an Asiatic foreigner; in others, from Ethiopia in the South. He is a god of epiphany, "the god that comes", and his "foreignness" as an arriving outsider-god may be inherent and essential to his cults. He is a major, popular figure of Greek mythology and religion, becoming increasingly important over time, and is included in some lists of the twelve Olympians. Dionysus was the last god to be accepted into Mt. Olympus. He was the youngest and the only one to have a mortal mother. His festivals were the driving force behind the development of Greek theatre. He is sometimes categorised as a dying-and-rising god. More on Dionysus

Ariadne, in Greek mythology, daughter of Pasiphae and the Cretan king Minos. She fell in love with the Athenian hero Theseus and, with a thread or glittering jewels, helped him escape the Labyrinth after he slew the Minotaur, a beast half bull and half man that Minos kept in the Labyrinth. Here the legends diverge: she was abandoned by Theseus and hanged herself; or, Theseus carried her to Naxos and left her there to die, and she was rescued by and married the god Dionysus. More on Ariadne



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