Saturday, December 16, 2017

03 Paintings, RELIGIOUS ART - SIGNORELLI's Interpretations of the Resurrection of the Flesh. # 65

SIGNORELLI, Luca, (b. ca. 1450, Cortona, d. 1523, Cortona)
Resurrection of the Flesh, 1499-1502
Fresco, width 700 cm
Chapel of San Brizio, Duomo, Orvieto

"Behold, I tell you a mystery: we shall not all sleep, but we shall all be changed – in a moment, in the twinkling of an eye, at the last trumpet. For the trumpet will sound, and the dead will be raised incorruptible, and we shall be changed. For this corruptible must put on incorruption, and this mortal must put on immortality. For the trumpet will sound, and the dead will be raised incorruptible, and we shall be changed. For this corruptible must put on incorruption, and this mortal must put on immortality." St Paul.

SIGNORELLI, Luca, (b. ca. 1450, Cortona, d. 1523, Cortona)
Resurrection of the Flesh, 1499-1502

In this detail, the skulls surfacing through the cracks in the ground, put on their bodies as though they were a costume, and become human beings once again.

We have to isolate the individual details in order to grasp the greatness of Signorelli the 'illustrator' and the 'inventor. The Resurrection of the Flesh,

SIGNORELLI, Luca, (b. ca. 1450, Cortona, d. 1523, Cortona)
Resurrection of the Flesh, 1499-1502

The macabre idea of the nude with his back to the observer who is carrying on a conversation with the skeletons; or the skulls surfacing through the cracks in the ground, who put on their bodies as though they were a costume, and become human beings once again.

Luca Signorelli (c. 1445 – 16 October 1523) was an Italian Renaissance painter who was noted in particular for his ability as a draughtsman and his use of foreshortening. His massive frescoes of the Last Judgment (1499–1503) in Orvieto Cathedral are considered his masterpiece. More on Luca Signorelli

Acknowledgement: Web Gallery of Art, and others

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05 Paintings, RELIGIOUS ART - Interpretations of the Bible! by The Old Masters, With Footnotes # 64

Peter Paul Rubens
 Jesus at the banquet of Simon the Pharisee
Oil on canvas
158 x 227 cm
Private collection

Simon was a Pharisee mentioned in the Gospel of Luke (Luke 7:36-50) as the host of a meal, who invited Jesus to eat in his house but failed to show him the usual marks of hospitality offered to visitors - a greeting kiss, water to wash his feet, or oil for his head .

During the meal, a tearful woman identified as a sinner anointed Jesus' feet. He contrasted her faith and care with Simon's failure to show common decency, and accused him of being forgiven little and (in consequence) loving little. More on Simon the Pharisee

Sir Peter Paul Rubens (28 June 1577 – 30 May 1640) was a Flemish Baroque painter. A proponent of an extravagant Baroque style that emphasized movement, colour, and sensuality, Rubens is well known for his Counter-Reformation altarpieces, portraits, landscapes, and history paintings of mythological and allegorical subjects.

In addition to running a large studio in Antwerp that produced paintings popular with nobility and art collectors throughout Europe, Rubens was a classically educated humanist scholar and diplomat who was knighted by both Philip IV of Spain and Charles I of England.  More Sir Peter Paul Rubens

Paul Gauguin (1848–1903)
Christ on the Mount of Olives, c. 1889
Oil on canvas
73 × 92 cm (28.7 × 36.2 in)
Norton Museum of Art, West Palm Beach, Florida

Luke 22:39-44: Jesus went out as usual to the Mount of Olives, and his disciples followed him. On reaching the place, he said to them, “Pray that you will not fall into temptation.” He withdrew about a stone’s throw beyond them, knelt down and prayed,  “Father, if you are willing, take this cup from me; yet not my will, but yours be done.” An angel from heaven appeared to him and strengthened him. And being in anguish, he prayed more earnestly, and his sweat was like drops of blood falling to the ground. 

Eugène Henri Paul Gauguin (7 June 1848 – 8 May 1903) was a French post-Impressionist artist. Underappreciated until after his death, Gauguin is now recognized for his experimental use of color and Synthetist style that were distinctly different from Impressionism. His work was influential to the French avant-garde and many modern artists, such as Pablo Picasso and Henri Matisse. Gauguin's art became popular after his death.
He was an important figure in the Symbolist movement as a painter, sculptor, printmaker, ceramist, and writer. His bold experimentation with color led directly to the Synthetist style of modern art, while his expression of the inherent meaning of the subjects in his paintings, under the influence of the cloisonnist style, paved the way to Primitivism and the return to the pastoral. He was also an influential proponent of wood engraving and woodcuts as art forms. More on Eugène Henri Paul Gauguin

Leandro da Ponte, called Leandro Bassano (Bassano 1557-1622 Venice)
The Queen of Sheba before King Solomon 
Oil on copper
52.9 x 40.1cm (20 13/16 x 15 13/16in).
Private collection

The Queen of Sheba is a Biblical figure. The tale of her visit to King Solomon has undergone extensive Jewish, Arabian and Ethiopian elaborations, and has become the subject of one of the most widespread and fertile cycles of legends in the Orient.

The queen of Sheba came to Jerusalem "with a very great retinue, with camels bearing spices, and very much gold, and precious stones"). "Never again came such an abundance of spices" as those which she gave to Solomon. She came "to prove him with hard questions", all of which Solomon answered to her satisfaction. They exchanged gifts, after which she returned to her land. More on The Queen of Sheba

Leandro Bassano (June 10, 1557 – April 15, 1622), also called Leandro dal Ponte, was an Italian artist from Bassano del Grappa. Leandro studied with his brother in their father's workshop, but took over the studio when Francesco opened a workshop in Venice. Leandro followed in the tradition of his father’s religious works, but also became well known as a portrait painter.

By around 1575, Leandro had become an important assistant to his father, with his brother relocated to Venice. It was his father’s will that Leandro carry on the studio in Bassano del Grappa. Though after his father died, his brother Francesco committed suicide and Leandro took up the studio in Venice. There he became a successful portraitist, working close to the influential style of the Venetian master, Tintoretto.

His success grew substantially in Venice, even landing him a knighthood from the Doge of Venice Marino Grimani in 1595 about, and he spent the rest of his life in the city. With this, Leandro began to sign his name with the honorary, “Eques.”  More on Leandro Bassano

Gaspar de Crayer, (Antwerp 1584-1669 Ghent)
The Penitent Magdalen 
Oil on canvas
91.8 x 71.1cm (36 1/8 x 28in)
Private collection

A sinner, perhaps a courtesan, Mary Magdalen was a witness of Christ who renounced the pleasures of the flesh for a life of penance and contemplation. Penitent Magdalene or Penitent Magdalen refers to a post-biblical period in the life of Mary Magdalene, according to medieval legend. 

According to the tenets of the 17th–century Catholic church, Mary Magdalene was an example of the repentant sinner and consequently a symbol of the Sacrament of Penance. According to legend, Mary led a dissolute life until her sister Martha persuaded her to listen to Jesus Christ. She became one of Christ's most devoted followers and he absolved her of her former sins. More on The Penitent Magdalen 

Gaspard de Crayer (1584-1669) was a Flemish painter born in Antwerp and worked in the region, as well as in the Netherlands and in Spain. The artist who is famous for his sacral paintings, his oeuvre contains hundreds of altarpieces painted only rarely profane subjects, such as the lifesize portrait of Philipp IV. king of Spain in the 17th century. Gaspard de Crayer began his education attending the school of Raphael van Coxcie. He was guided by the works of the masters of the Italian Renaissance as well as by those of his contemporary and compatriot Peter Paul Rubens (1577-1640). Later the artist became painter at the court of Philipp IV. De Crayer, joining the important church painters of his time and created a lot of major works of the Counterreformation. More on Gaspar de Crayer

Massimo Stanzione, (1585 - 1656)
Madonna with Child, c. 1645
Oil on canvas
104 x 78 cm
Private collection

Massimo Stanzione (ca. 1586 – ca. 1656) was one of the leading painters in Naples in the 17th century, producing numerous altarpieces and frescoes. His rich colours and idealised naturalism influenced a great number of students and imitators. This is a copy of a large altarpiece that he painted for the Carthusian monks in the church of Certosa di S. Martino in Naples: Stanzione included Carthusian monks mourning the dead Christ. This copy may date from the 18th century. More on Massimo Stanzione

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Tuesday, December 12, 2017

06 Contemporary Interpretations, Olympian deities in classical Greek and Roman religion, with footnotes #2

Elle Hanley, United States
24 H x 36 W x 0.1 in

The Birth of Venus. In Roman mythology, Venus was the goddess of love, sex, beauty, and fertility. She was the Roman counterpart to the Greek Aphrodite. However, Roman Venus had many abilities beyond the Greek Aphrodite; she was a goddess of victory, fertility, and even prostitution. According to Hesiod's Theogony, Aphrodite was born of the foam from the sea after Saturn (Greek Cronus) castrated his father Uranus (Ouranus) and his blood fell to the sea. This latter explanation appears to be more a popular theory due to the countless artworks depicting Venus rising from the sea in a clam. More The Birth of Venus

Elle Hanley is an american fine art photographer currently living and working in Seattle. her work is creative and varied focusing mainly on capturing beauty and emotion in a still shot of time.

She began photography two years ago as an artistic outlet and it grew into a full fledged devotion. She was drawn in particular to self portraiture for the control it gave over the image outcome and has since grown into a self portrait artist. Elle enjoys the challenges in creating something vintage and timeless from a thoroughly modern process and the contradiction between the two is a strong theme throughout her work.  More on Elle Hanley

Cy Twombly
Leda and the Swan, c. 1962
Oil, pencil, and crayon on canvas
6' 3" x 6' 6 3/4" (190.5 x 200 cm)
The Museum of Modern Art

Leda & the Swan, see below

Rome, Twombly's home since the 1950s, has nurtured his fascination with classical antiquity. In this work he refers to the Roman myth in which Jupiter, lord of the gods, takes the shape of a swan in order to ravish Leda, the beautiful mother of Helen (over whom the Trojan war would be fought). Twombly's version of this old art-historical theme supplies no contrast of feathers and flesh but a fusion of violent energies in furiously thrashing overlays of crayon, pencil, and ruddy paint. A few recognizable signs—hearts, a phallus—fly out from this explosion, in stark contrast to the sober windowlike rectangle near the top of the painting. More on this painting

Edwin Parker "Cy" Twombly Jr. (April 25, 1928 – July 5, 2011) was an American painter, sculptor and photographer. He belonged to the generation of Robert Rauschenberg and Jasper Johns but chose to live in Italy after 1957.

His paintings are predominantly large-scale, freely-scribbled, calligraphic and graffiti-like works on solid fields of mostly gray, tan, or off-white colors. Many of his works are in the permanent collections of most of the museums of modern art around the world

Many of his later paintings and works on paper shifted toward "romantic symbolism", and their titles can be interpreted visually through shapes and forms and words. Twombly often quoted the poets as Stéphane Mallarmé, Rainer Maria Rilke and John Keats, as well as many classical myths and allegories in his works.  Twombly is said to have influenced younger artists such as Jean-Michel Basquiat, Anselm Kiefer, Francesco Clemente, and Julian Schnabel. More om Edwin Parker "Cy" Twombly Jr.

Cathy Hegman
Preflight Icarus
Oil and wax on board
28 x 24 inches
Private collection

Icarus, see below

Cathy Hegman. "My art is my life both literally and physically. I am no longer sure where the paint ends and life begins or vice versa. I am for the most part a figurative painter.  I particularly have a penchant for painting the unknown, the parts of life and painting that simply refuse to be defined.    I paint figures that embody no particular persona, but are comprised of  bits, pieces and facets of those who have in some way marked my journey for either good or bad.  The amalgamated resulting figure is both familiar, strange, and often enigmatic.   The figure for the most part in my work is a two dimensional shape that integrates into and out of the background shapes. It is a pigmented push and pull of visual weight that seems to give the painting life without giving either a portrait or caricature of anyone. I most often prefer my forms to remain faceless, diffused and dimly lit..  I choose to employ loose open ended narratives in my work, I want to leave options for the viewer." Cathy Hegman 2016

Marco Battaglini, Costa Rica
Sex Stop Global Warming
Airbrush, Acrylic and Digital on Canvas
Private collection

Marco Battaglini is an artist based in San Jose, Costa Rica. Through a subtle interplay of multiple realities overlapping in the chronotope, Battaglini evidences the contradictions in mental models about the temporal contrast (chronological), and the cultural and linguistic barriers.

Compositions which at first seem 'logical', immediately reveal temporal and spatial limitations that are disruptive in the interpretation of reality. More on this painting

Costa Rican artist Marco Battaglini uses his artwork to explore the evolution of culture and knowledge. In some works, he combines classical paintings with modern pop-art references and graffiti for a modern renaissance look.  While the imagery appears almost collaged at first glance, looking at the paintings I find subtle details that really add to the ideas behind the pieces, like finding brand names tattooed on the cherubic figures that frequent these scenes. More on Marco Battaglini 

Rafael Roa
The Icarus' s daughter in four pieces, c. 1966
4 pieces of Polaroid 50 × 60 cm
Private collection

Icarus. In Greek mythology, Icarus is the son of the master craftsman Daedalus, the creator of the Labyrinth. Often depicted in art, Icarus and his father attempt to escape from Crete by means of wings that his father constructed from feathers and wax. Icarus' father warns him first of complacency and then of hubris, asking that he fly neither too low nor too high, so the sea's dampness would not clog his wings or the sun's heat melt them. Icarus ignored his father's instructions not to fly too close to the sun; when the wax in his wings melted he tumbled out of the sky and fell into the sea where he drowned. More on Icarus

Rafael Roa is a self-taught photographer and experimental video artist; in the early 80s he co-founded in Madrid the Image Gallery, dedicated to photography.

Since 1988 he works as a photographer and video artist, exhibiting their creations in these disciplines since 2005. He has specialized in fashion, portrait, corporate photography and advertising campaigns and has worked for the best brands and published in media such as Vogue, Elle, El País Semanal, Cosmopolitan, among others.

He has extensive experience as a teacher of university courses and teacher’s training courses in the area of the image. He currently teaches at the school PIC.A. Rafael is an expert in history of photography and video creation, teaches numerous workshops of these subjects in public and private institutions and universities.

Rafael Roa’s work has been awarded with the First Prize Scholarship Workshops of Contemporary Art (Granada, 1986), the Second FotoPres Award in the category of “Sports” (1990) and the Prize of the First Biennial of Contemporary Art Chapingo (Mexico City , 2008). His work is in the permanent collections of the Valencian Institute of Modern Art, the Andalusian Center of Photography (Almería) and the National Center for Contemporary Arts in Moscow (Russia). More om Rafael Roa 

Francesca Woodman
Leda and The Swan 
Private collection

Leda, in Greek legend, usually believed to be the daughter of Thestius, king of Aetolia, and wife of Tyndareus, king of Lacedaemon. She was also believed to have been the mother (by Zeus, who had approached and seduced her in the form of a swan) of the other twin, Pollux, and of Helen, both of whom hatched from eggs. Variant legends gave divine parentage to both the twins and possibly also to Clytemnestra, with all three of them having hatched from the eggs of Leda, while yet other legends say that Leda bore the twins to her mortal husband, Tyndareus. Still other variants say that Leda may have hatched out Helen from an egg laid by the goddess Nemesis, who was similarly approached by Zeus in the form of a swan.The divine swan’s encounter with Leda was a subject depicted by both ancient Greek and Italian Renaissance artists; Leonardo da Vinci undertook a painting (now lost) of the theme, and Correggio’s Leda (c. 1530s) is a well-known treatment of the subject. More Leda and The Swan

Francesca Stern Woodman (April 3, 1958 – January 19, 1981) was an American photographer best known for her black and white pictures featuring either herself or female models. Many of her photographs show young women who are nude, blurred (due to movement and long exposure times), merging with their surroundings, or whose faces are obscured. Her work continues to be the subject of much critical acclaim and attention, years after she died by suicide at the age of 22, in 1981. More Francesca Stern Woodman

Jan Saudek
Roman Charity
Private collection

Roman Charity is the exemplary story of a woman, Pero, who secretly breastfeeds her father, Cimon, after he is incarcerated and sentenced to death by starvation. She is found out by a jailer, but her act of selflessness impresses officials and wins her father's release.

The story is recorded by the ancient Roman historian Valerius Maximus, and was presented as a great act of filial piety and Roman honour. A painting in the Temple of Pietas depicted the scene. Among Romans, the theme had mythological echoes in Juno's breastfeeding of the adult Hercules, an Etruscan myth. More on Roman Charity

Jan Saudek (born 13 May 1935 in Prague, Czechoslovakia) is a Czech art photographer and painter. Saudek's was a Jew and his family to become a target of the Nazis. Many of his family died in Theresienstadt concentration camp during World War II.

According to Saudeks's biography, he got his first camera, a Kodak Baby Brownie, in 1950. He apprenticed to a photographer and in 1952 started working as a print shop worker, where he worked until 1983. In 1959, he started painting and drawing. After completing his military service, he was inspired in 1963 by the catalogue for Edward Steichen's The Family of Man exhibition, to try to become a serious art photographer. In 1969, he traveled to the United States and was encouraged in his work by curator Hugh Edwards.

Returning to Prague, he was forced to work in a clandestine manner in a cellar, to avoid the attentions of the secret police, as his work turned to themes of personal erotic freedom, and used implicitly political symbols of corruption and innocence. From the late 1970s, he became recognized in the West as the leading Czech photographer. In 1983, the first book of his work was published in the English-speaking world. The same year, he became a freelance photographer as the Czech Communist authorities allowed him to cease working in the print shop, and gave him permission to apply for a permit to work as an artist. More Jan Saudek

Roberto Manetta, Italy
Dancing mermaid
39.4 H x 27.6 W x 11.8 in

A mermaid is a legendary aquatic creature with the head and upper body of a female human and the tail of a fish. Mermaids appear in the folklore of many cultures worldwide, including the Near East, Europe, Africa and Asia. The first stories appeared in ancient Assyria, in which the goddess Atargatis transformed herself into a mermaid out of shame for accidentally killing her human lover. Mermaids are sometimes associated with perilous events such as floods, storms, shipwrecks and drownings. In other folk traditions (or sometimes within the same tradition), they can be benevolent or beneficent, bestowing boons or falling in love with humans.

Some of the attributes of mermaids may have been influenced by the Sirens of Greek mythology. More on mermaids

Roberto Manetta is a traveling freelance photographer, Film and digital photography, since 1999. "No digital manipulation,only photography My passion comes from nature, adventure stories, fantasy films that have contributed phenomenally to my project ideas and the major part of my photographs. I am always very attentive, in all of my movements, in everything surrounding me. I often dream about adventures, fairy tales and mythological women. I look around at the objects surrounding me, with attention, searching for a link between a nude body more than a face. Geometric lines and original compositions are always at the centre of my attention when I launch upon a new project. I don’t really like the classic approach to nude photography. During the years I tried to maintain in all my productions a quality that re-conducted to classical photography, the one which is created without the need of much digital elaboration" More on Roberto Manetta

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Thursday, December 7, 2017

04 Icons from the Bible, with footnotes, #18

Mother of God Znamenie
Russian icon, first half of 19th c.
38 x 30,5 cm
Private collection

The Icon of the Mother of God, named the "Sign" ("Znamenie"), shows the Most Holy Mother of God seated with prayerfully uplifted hands.  On Her bosom, against the background of a circular shield (or sphere) – is the Divine Infant giving a blessing.

The Mother of God, known under the name "Znamenie-Sign", appeared in Rus' during the XI-XII Centuries, and were called such after a miraculous "Sign" from the Novgorod Icon, which occurred in the year 1170, the year the allied forces of the Russian appanage princes, marched to the the very walls of Great Novgorod.

For the Novgorod people the only hope remaining was in the help of God. Day and night they prayed, beseeching the Lord not to forsake them. On the third night the Novgorod bishop Ilia heard a voice commanding to take out, from the church of the Saviour–Transfiguration the image of the Most Holy Mother of God, and to carry it about on the city walls. When they carried about the icon – the enemy let loose at the church procession an hail of arrows, and one of them pierced the iconographic countenance of the Mother of God. From Her eyes trickled tears, and the icon turned its face towards the city. After such a Divine Sign there suddenly fell upon the enemy an inexpressible terror, they began to strike at one another, and taking encouragement from the Lord the Novgorodians fearlessly gave battle and gained the victory. 

Numerous copies of the Znamenie-Sign Icon are known of throughout all Russia. Many of them subsequently also were glorified by miracles in their local churches, and were then named for the place of the appearance of the miracle. More on the Mother of God Znamenie

Piero della Francesca, (1420–1492)
Madonna del Parto, c. 1467
Museo della Madonna del Parto, Monterchi

A Madonna del Parto is an iconic depiction of the Virgin Mary shown as pregnant, which was developed in Italy, mainly in Tuscany in the 14th century. Examples include works by Taddeo Gaddi, Bernardo Daddi and Nardo di Cione. The Madonna was portrayed standing, alone, often with a closed book on her belly, an allusion to the Incarnate Word. The works were associated with the devotions of pregnant women, praying for a safe delivery.

Piero della Francesca (1415 – 1492) was an Italian painter of the Early Renaissance. As testified by Giorgio Vasari in his Lives of the Most Excellent Painters, Sculptors, and Architects, to contemporaries he was also known as a mathematician and geometer. Nowadays Piero della Francesca is chiefly appreciated for his art. His painting was characterized by its serene humanism, its use of geometric forms and perspective. His most famous work is the cycle of frescoes The History of the True Cross in the church of San Francesco in the Tuscan town of Arezzo. More on Piero della Francesca

Christ is carrying our cross
 Russian icon, 19th c. 
31,2 x 26,5 cm
Private collection

The thematically singular icon shows the cross-carrying Christ in the midst of many crosses. The crosses have the following inscriptions: Spitefulness, disobedience of the children, slapping of the poor, unthankfulness, sarcasm, "He carries our sins and suffers for us",thievery, blasphemy, denial of mortification, brand, imprisoning someone in who has done no wrong, buggery, sudden death, hurts, ire, persecution through enemies, defamation, hunger, disturbance, gluttony, overhasty revenge, untruth, quittance, disharmonious marriage, without repentance, blasphemy, adultery, pauperism, diseases, unfair punishment, sacrilege. 

The text below is taken from Matth. 16,24:"Jesus said to his disciples, if anyone would come after me, he must deny himself and take up his cross and follow me." More on this icon

Assay Master: Alexander Mitin, (1842-1877)
Artist: Dmitry Smirnov, (1836-1865)
Mother of God "Surety of sinners"
Russian icon with silver oklad, St. Petersburg 1852
9 x 7 cm
Private collection

The Icon of the Mother of God “Surety of Sinners” is known by this name because of the inscription on the icon: “I am the Surety of sinners for My Son Who has entrusted Me to hear them, and those who bring Me the joy of hearing them will receive eternal joy through Me.” The Mother of God embraces Her Child, Who holds Her right hand with both His hands so that Her thumb is in His right hand, and Her small finger in His left hand. This is the gesture of one who gives surety for another.

The basis of the icon is to be found in the Akathist to the Protection of the Most Holy Theotokos: “Rejoice, You Who offer Your hands in surety for us to God.”

The “Surety of Sinners” icon of the Mother of God was in an old chapel beyond the monastery gates, and stood between two other ancient icons. Because it was so faded and covered with dust, it was impossible to read the inscription.

In 1843 it was revealed to many of the people in dreams that the icon was endowed with miraculous power. They solemnly brought the icon into the church. Believers began to flock to it to pray for the healing of their sorrows and sicknesses. The first to receive healing was a crippled child, whose mother prayed fervently before the icon in 1844. The icon was glorified during a cholera epidemic, when many people fell deathly ill, and were restored to health after praying before the icon. More on the Mother of God “Surety of Sinners

The history of the Mandylio
Russian icon, end of 17th c
30,7 x 25,8 cm
Private collection

According to Christian tradition, the Image of Edessa was a holy relic consisting of a square or rectangle of cloth upon which a miraculous image of the face of Jesus had been imprinted—the first icon. In the Orthodox Churches, including English-speaking Orthodoxy, the image is generally known as the Mandylion. More on Mandylio

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03 Carvings & Sculpture from the Bible!, by FRIEDRICH GOLDSCHEIDER,19th Century. With Footnote, # 16

Judith, with a decorated belt , a wrist bracelet
Polychrome terracotta
Height: 100 cm 
Private collection

The Book of Judith is the Old Testament of the Bible. The story revolves around Judith, a daring and beautiful widow, who is upset with her Jewish countrymen for not trusting God to deliver them from their foreign conquerors. She goes with her loyal maid to the camp of the enemy general, Holofernes, with whom she slowly ingratiates herself, promising him information on the Israelites. Gaining his trust, she is allowed access to his tent one night as he lies in a drunken stupor. She decapitates him, then takes his head back to her fearful countrymen. The Assyrians, having lost their leader, disperse, and Israel is saved. Though she is courted by many, Judith remains unmarried for the rest of her life. More on The Book of Judith

Goldscheider Porcelain Manufactory and Majolica Factory is an Austrian ceramic manufacturer.

In 1885, Friedrich Goldscheider came from the Bohemian city of Pilsen to Vienna and founded the Goldscheider Porcelain Manufactory and Majolica Factory. It became one of the most influential ceramic manufactories of terracotta, faience and bronze objects in Austria, with subsidiaries in Paris, Leipzig and Florence. For over half a century, Goldscheider created masterpieces of historical revivalism, Art Nouveau and Art Deco.

Famous artists such as Josef Lorenzl, Stefan Dakon, Ida Meisinger and the two perhaps best known Austrian ceramic artists (Michael Powolny and Vally Wieselthier) worked for Goldscheider. Several of the artists who worked for Goldscheider also worked for other Viennese studios, such as Augarten, Keramos or for the German brands Rosenthal and Meissen.

The Goldscheider family migrated in 1938 to the United Kingdom and USA. Walter Goldscheider started a new factory in Trenton, New Jersey, and returned to Vienna in 1950. Marcel Goldscheider went to Stoke-on-Trent and produced figurative ceramics for Myott, and he opened his own studio in the 1950s in Hanley. Both brothers died in the early 1960s.

More than 10,000 different models were created over a period of three generations. Since the very beginning, many of these won first prizes and gold medals at innumerable world fairs, exhibitions and trade fairs. More on Goldscheider Porcelain Manufactory and Majolica Factory

Judith, wearing a 
snake bracelet on the wrist and a saber at her back 
Polychrome terracotta 
Height: 89 cm 
Private collection

Judith, see above

FRIEDRICH GOLDSCHEIDER (1845-1897), see above

Rebecca, leaning on her jar 
Polychrome terracotta 
Height: 64 cm
Private collection

Abraham went about finding a wife for his son Isaac. He commanded his servant to journey to his birthplace of Aram Naharaim to select a bride from his own family, rather than engage Isaac to a local Canaanite girl. Abraham sent along expensive jewelry, clothing and dainties as gifts to the bride and her family. 

The servant devised a test in order to find the right wife for Isaac. As he stood at the central well in Abraham's birthplace with his men and ten camels laden with goods, he prayed to God: "And let it come to pass, that the damsel to whom I shall say, Let down thy pitcher, I pray thee, that I may drink; and she shall say, Drink, and I will give thy camels drink also" — Genesis 24:14

To his surprise, a young girl immediately came out and offered to draw water for him to drink, as well as water to fill the troughs for all his camels. Rebecca continued to draw water until all the camels were sated, proving her kind and generous nature and her suitability for entering Abraham's household. The servant immediately gave her a golden nose ring and two golden bracelets. After hosting the party overnight, however, the family tried to keep Rebecca with them longer. The servant insisted that they ask the girl herself, and she agreed to go immediately.

As Rebecca and her entourage approached Abraham's home, they spied Isaac from a distance in the fields praying. Seeing such a spiritually exalted man, Rebecca immediately dismounted from her camel and asked the accompanying servant who he was. When she heard that this was her future husband, she modestly covered herself with a veil. Isaac brought her into the tent of his mother Sarah, married her, and loved her. More on Rebecca 

FRIEDRICH GOLDSCHEIDER (1845-1897), see above

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