Wednesday, August 3, 2016

11 Paintings, RELIGIOUS ART - Paintings from the Bible, with footnotes. 24

Pedro García de Benabarre, (Spanish, 1445 – 1483)
Herod's Banquet, Circa 1470
Tempera, stucco reliefs and gold leaf on wood
197.5 x 125.7 x 6.4 cm
Museu Nacional d'Art de Catalunya, Barcelona

Compartment of an altarpiece dedicated to Saint John the Baptist. The Museu Nacional keeps six more panels from the same work. Another panel with Saint Michael is kept at the Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum in Boston and the whereabouts of other pieces is unknown. From the parish church of Sant Joan del Mercat de Lleida. More

Pedro Garcia Benavarre, or Benabarre (Benabarre, Huesca 1445-1485) was a Spanish-Flemish Gothic painter active in Aragon and Catalonia. Garcia was documented in 1445 in Zaragoza in Blasco union Grañén painter, who could be his teacher and with whom he collaborated as an assistant between 1445 and 1447. This Zaragoza highlights the execution stage of the altarpiece of Villarroya of Campo. The two partners also worked at painting altarpieces for the church of the monastery of San Pedro de Siresa in Jacetania.

Pedro García de Benabarre, (Spanish, 1445 – 1483)
Apocalyptic Virgin and Saint Vincent Ferrer with two Donors , circa 1456
Tempera, stucco reliefs and gold leaf on wood
Height: 1,703 mm (67.05 in). Width: 1,257 mm (49.49 in).
Museu Nacional d'Art de Catalunya

Central compartment of an altarpiece dedicated to the Virgin Mary and Saint Vincent Ferrer. The Musée des Arts Décoratifs in Paris has another compartment of the same altarpiece with Saint Vincent. It comes from the church of the Dominican convent of Cervera 

On the left are the Virgin and Child surrounded by sunlight, with the crescent moon and a star at the foot of the mantle. These are some of the attributes that characterize the woman described by John in Revelation, a figure that throughout the Middle Ages was increasingly identified with the Church as an institution and the Virgin Mary. 

The table on the right, St Vincent with one hand holding a book where you can read a verse from the Book of Revelation and the other indicates the figure of Christ, who appears showing the plagues of the Passion and accompanied by angels with trumpets, iconography of the Final Judgment. Both elements relate to the activity as a preacher of Saint Vincent, who often treated the subject of end times and the coming of Christ the Judge. At the bottom of the compartment, and smaller in size, two figures of a man and a woman; the patrons of the altar, in dialogue with the Child Jesus imploring his salvation. More

Saint Vincent of Saragossa was a deacon of the Church of Saragossa. He is the patron saint of Lisbon and Valencia. He was born at Huesca and martyred under the Emperor Diocletian around the year 304. The earliest account of Vincent's martyrdom is in a carmen (lyric poem) written by the poet Prudentius, who wrote a series of lyric poems, Peristephanon ("Crowns of Martyrdom"), on Hispanic and Roman martyrs.

He was born at Huesca, near Saragossa, Spain sometime during the latter part of the 3rd century. Vincent spent most of his life in the city of Saragossa, where he was educated and ordained to the diaconate by Bishop Valerius of Saragossa, who commissioned Vincent to preach throughout the diocese. Because Valerius suffered from a speech impediment, Vincent acted as his spokesman.

When the Roman Emperor Diocletian began persecuting Christians in Spain, both were brought before the Roman governor, Dacian in Valencia. Vincent and his bishop Valerius were confined to the prison of Valencia. Though he was finally offered release if he would consign Scripture to the fire, Vincent refused. Speaking on behalf of his bishop, he informed the judge that they were ready to suffer everything for their faith, and that they could pay no heed either to threats or promises.

His outspoken manner so angered the governor that Vincent was inflicted every sort of torture on him. He was stretched on the rack and his flesh torn with iron hooks. Then his wounds were rubbed with salt and he was burned alive upon a red-hot gridiron. Finally he was cast into prison and laid on a floor scattered with broken pottery, where he died. During his martyrdom he preserved such peace and tranquillity that it astonished his jailer, who repented from his sins and was converted. Vincent's dead body was thrown into the sea in a sack, but was later recovered by the Christians and his veneration immediately spread throughout the Church. The aged bishop Valerius was exiled. More

In 1452 he was established in Benabarre and worked on his own. From there he moved to Barcelona in 1455, hired by the widow and son of Bernat Martorell, with whom he pledged to finalize unfinished works by the master.

Pedro García de Benabarre, (Spanish, 1445 – 1483)
Mother of God and angels, c. 1470
Tempera, stucco reliefs and gold leaf on wood
211.8 x 147.5 x 13 cm
Museu Nacional d'Art de Catalunya

Central compartment of an altarpiece dedicated to the Virgin Mary. It comes from the church of the Assumption of Bellcaire d'Urgell (Noguera).

The Virgin appears enthroned and crowned. At her feet and you can see the crescent moon which refers to the figure of the woman described by John in Revelation. The Virgin carries the Child in her lap, naked and with a piece of coral hanging from the neck. Both are accompanied by four angels, two of which play lutes and two with offereings, grapes for the Virgin Mary, and the other with pears for the Child. More

It is likely that the terms of the contract signed with the Martorell were not met in full. Benabarre then worked at various nearby locations. At this stage, he had contracted to paint numerous altarpieces, including his most famous works: the Virgin enthroned and four angels or Virgen de Bellcaire, from the parish church of Bellcaire d'Urgell, now at the National Museum Art de Catalunya.

By 1481 he settled in Barbastro, painting the altarpiece at the church of the convent of San Francisco 

More than forty works have been attributed Pedro Garcia de Benabarre.


Pedro García de Benabarre, (Spanish, 1445 – 1483)
Dormition of the Virgin Mary, c. 1450-1455
Tempera, stucco reliefs and gilded with gold leaf on wood
277.2 x 168.5 x 19 cm
Museu Nacional d'Art de Catalunya

Dormition, (in the Orthodox Church) the passing of the Virgin Mary from earthly life.
Eastern Christians celebrate not the Assumption, but the Dormition of the Blessed Virgin Mary.

The Virgin, lying in bed, is accompanied by eleven apostles among which St. John the Evangelist  is recognized, which putting the cake in her hands, St. Peter, with an open book and dressed as a bishop, and St. Andrew's at the head of the bed with the cross. At the top of the icon, Christ, surrounded by angels, holds the soul of his mother. More

Pedro García de Benabarre, (Spanish, 1445 – 1483)
Martyrdom of Saint Sebastian and his body thrown into the tiburtina cloaca, 
c. 1455-1456
160 x 68 cm
Madrid, musée du Prado.

Saint Sebastian (died c. 288) was an early Christian saint and martyr. According to Christian belief, he was killed during the Roman emperor Diocletian's persecution of Christians. He is commonly depicted in art and literature tied to a post or tree and shot with arrows. Despite this being the most common artistic depiction of Sebastian, he was, according to legend, rescued and healed by Irene of Rome. Shortly afterwards he went to Diocletian to warn him about his sins, and as a result was clubbed to death. He is venerated in the Catholic and Orthodox Churches. More

Jaume Serra, 1358-1389 / 1405
Altarpiece of the Virgin, c. 1367-1381
Temple, gilded with gold foil on table
346.3 x 321 x 26 cm
Museu Nacional d'Art de Catalunya

Jaume Serra (died after 1405) was a Catalonian painter. Serra was influenced heavily by a Sienese style introduced by Ferrer Bassa. He was a member of a family of artists active in Catalonia in the fourteenth century. His brothers Pere, Francesc and Joan were also painters of italogótico style. The Serra brothers are characterized by the painting of tiny, stylized, slanted eyes and small mouth figures. Jaime painted Madonna of Humility. He also collaborated with his brothers in the realization of the altarpiece of the Monastery of Santa María de Sigena, now in the Museu Nacional d'Art de Catalunya in Barcelona.

Two additional altarpieces are preserved in the Museum of Zaragoza. The Virgin from the Convent of the Holy Sepulchre (Zaragoza) and Martin de Alpartil or the Resurrection (with the portrait of the friar as a donor). The third altarpiece is from the Shrine of Our Lady of Tobed, in Zaragoza, whose execution is documented between 1356 and 1359. It is formed by a central table, the Virgin of Tobed, which are represented the nursing Virgin and Child with the future king of Castile Henry II of Castile as a donor, and its two doors, painted in tempera and altarpieces independent dedicated to Mary Magdalene and John the Baptist, whose stories are told in three successive records on the bench with various saints. The set was kept divided between the Museo del Prado in Madrid, which had since 1965 the two side tables, and Várez Fisa collection, until in 2013 the collection has been donated to the Madrid museum main table, so that the altar could be made whole again. Jaime's altarpiece The Holy Spirit can be found in the Manresa cathedral. More

Miguel Ximénez (Before 1462 - After 1505)
Triptych, Saint John the Baptist, Saint Fabian and Saint Sebastian, c. 1494
Oil and gold leaf on wood
Height: 1,652 mm (65.04 in). Width: 2,230 mm (87.8 in).
National Art Museum of Catalonia

These three panels could have made up a triptych or the central part of a larger altarpiece of unknown structure. They come from the chapel of Sant Joan Baptista in one of the side apses of the church of the monastery of Santa María de Sigena (Villanueva de Sigena, Huesca). More

Miguel Ximénez, (Pareja -Guadalajara-, 15th century) was a Spanish Gothic painter. Miguel was documented in Saragossa between 1462 and 1505). He was appointed by Ferdinand II of Aragon's court painter on 11 May 1484 and is known to have influenced Bartolomé Bermejo's work. Also there are similarities between his work and Martín Bernat's. His son Juan Ximénez assisted him. More

Miguel Ximénez (Before 1462 - After 1505)
Saint John the Baptist, Saint Fabian and Saint Sebastian, c. 1494
Left Panel

Fabian (c. 200 – 20 January 250) was the Bishop of Rome from 10 January 236 to his death in 250, succeeding Anterus. He is famous for the miraculous nature of his election, in which a dove is said to have descended on his head to mark him as the Holy Spirit's unexpected choice to become the next pope. He was succeeded by Cornelius.

Most of his papacy was characterized by amicable relations with the imperial government, and Fabian could thus bring back to Rome the bodies of Pope Pontian and the antipope Hippolytus, both of whom had died in exile in the Sardinian mines, for Christian burial. It was also probably during his reign that the schism between the two corresponding Roman congregations of these leaders was ended. hly esteemed by Cyprian;[4] Novatian refers to his nobilissima memoriae, and he corresponded with Origen. One authority refers to him as Flavian.[5]

The Liber Pontificalis, a fourth-century document that survives in later copies, says that he divided Rome into deaconates and appointed secretaries to collect the records of the martyrs. He is also said, probably without basis, to have baptized the emperor Philip the Arab and his son. More plausible is the report in the Liberian Catalogue that he sent out seven "apostles to the Gauls" as missionaries.

He died a martyr at the beginning of the Decian persecution, and is venerated as a saint by the Catholic Church. More

Miguel Ximénez (Before 1462 - After 1505)
Saint John the Baptist, Saint Fabian and Saint Sebastian, c. 1494
Center Panel

John the Baptist, known as the prophet Yahya in the Qur'an, was a Jewish itinerant preacher in the early first century AD. John is revered as a major religious figure in Christianity, Islam, the Bahá'í Faith, and Mandaeism. He is called a prophet by all of these traditions, and honoured as a saint in many Christian traditions.

John used baptism as the central sacrament of his messianic movement.[ Most scholars agree that John baptized Jesus. Scholars generally believe Jesus was a follower or disciple of John and several New Testament accounts report that some of Jesus' early followers had previously been followers of John. John the Baptist is also mentioned by the Jewish historian Josephus. Some scholars maintain that John was influenced by the semi-ascetic Essenes, who expected an apocalypse and practiced rituals corresponding strongly with baptism, although no direct evidence substantiates this.

According to the New Testament, John anticipated a messianic figure greater than himself, and Jesus was the one whose coming John foretold. Christians commonly refer to John as the precursor or forerunner of Jesus, since John announces Jesus' coming. John is also identified with the prophet Elijah. More

Miguel Ximénez (Before 1462 - After 1505)
Saint John the Baptist, Saint Fabian and Saint Sebastian, c. 1494
Right Panel

Saint Sebastian (died c. 288) was an early Christian saint and martyr. According to Christian belief, he was killed during the Roman emperor Diocletian's persecution of Christians. He is commonly depicted in art and literature tied to a post or tree and shot with arrows. Despite this being the most common artistic depiction of Sebastian, he was, according to legend, rescued and healed by Irene of Rome. Shortly afterwards he went to Diocletian to warn him about his sins, and as a result was clubbed to death. He is venerated in the Catholic and Orthodox Churches. More

Josse Lieferinxe, (working ca 1493–1503/08)
Saint Sebastian Interceding for the Plague Stricken, c. 1497 and 1499
Oil on panel
81.8 × 55.4 cm (32.2 × 21.8 in)
Walters Art Museum

This painting depicts one instance of his intercession. According to legend, this event occurred long after the saint's death, during an outbreak of the plague in 7th-century Pavia, Italy. Here, just as a victim is to be buried, a grave attendant is struck by the disease. The plague-or Black Death-devastated Europe for centuries, and the painting's viewers would have known its horrors. St. Sebastian, pierced with arrows, kneels before God to plead on behalf of humanity, while an angel and a demon battle in the sky. The artist was never in Italy and based the appearance of Pavia on that of Avignon.
In 1497, Lieferinxe contracted with the Confraternity of St. Sebastian to paint an altarpiece dedicated to their patron saint in the church of Notre-Dame-des-Accoules (now destroyed) in Marseille, France. Six other panels from this altarpiece are now in the Philadelphia Museum of Art (Johnson Collection), the Museo di Palazo Venezia in Rome, and the Hermitage Museum, Saint Petersburg. More

Josse Lieferinxe (working ca 1493–1503/08) was a South Netherlandish painter, formerly known by the pseudonym the Master of St. Sebastian.

Originating in the diocese of Cambrai in Hainaut, then part of the territories ruled by the Dukes of Burgundy, Josse Lieferinxe was documented as a "Picard" in the regions of Avignon and Marseille at the end of the fifteenth and in the early sixteenth centuries. He was first mentioned in Provence in 1493. In 1503 he married Michelle, a daughter of Jean Changenet, the most prominent painter of Avignon, in whose atelier Lieferinxe may have matured his style. He was last mentioned living in 1505, and in 1508 as deceased. More

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