Tuesday, December 20, 2016

18 Paintings, Stories from the Bible, by the Old Masters, with footnotes #37

Rosso Fiorentino
Pietà, c. 1537 - 1540
Oil on wood transferred to canvas
125 x 159 cm
Private Collection

The Pietà is a subject in Christian art depicting the Virgin Mary cradling the dead body of Jesus, most often found in sculpture. As such, it is a particular form of the Lamentation of Christ, a scene from the Passion of Christ found in cycles of the Life of Christ. When Christ and the Virgin are surrounded by other figures from the New Testament, the subject is strictly called a Lamentation in English, although Pietà is often used for this as well, and is the normal term in Italian. More

Giovanni Battista di Jacopo (8 March 1495 – 14 November 1540), known as Rosso Fiorentino (meaning "red Florentine" in Italian), or Il Rosso, was an Italian Mannerist painter, in oil and fresco, belonging to the Florentine school.

Born in Florence with the red hair that gave him his nickname, Rosso first trained in the studio of Andrea del Sarto alongside his contemporary, Pontormo. In late 1523, Rosso moved to Rome, where he was exposed to the works of Michelangelo, Raphael, and other Renaissance artists, resulting in the realignment of his artistic style.

Fleeing Rome after the Sacking of 1527, Rosso eventually went to France where he secured a position at the court of Francis I in 1530, remaining there until his death. Together with Francesco Primaticcio, Rosso was one of the leading artists to work at the Chateau Fontainebleau as part of the "First School of Fontainebleau", spending much of his life there. Following his death in 1540  Francesco Primaticcio took charge of the artistic direction at Fontainebleau.

Rosso's reputation, along those of other stylized late Renaissance Florentines, was long out of favour in comparison to other more naturalistic and graceful contemporaries, but has revived considerably in recent decades. That his masterpiece is in a small city, away from the tourist track, was a factor in this, especially before the arrival of photography. His poses are certainly contorted, and his figures often appear haggard and thin, but his work has considerable power. More

Pietro della Vecchia, VENICE OR VICENZA 1602/3 - 1678 VENICE
Oil on canvas
133 x 167 cm.; 52 1/4  x 65 3/4  in.
Private Collection

Joseph is an important figure in the Bible's Book of Genesis and also in the Quran as well as the Book of Mormon. Sold into slavery by his jealous brothers, he rose to become vizier, the second most powerful man in Egypt next to Pharaoh, where his presence and office caused Israel to leave Canaan and settle in Egypt. The composition of the story can be dated to the period between the 7th century BCE and the third quarter of the 5th century BCE, which is roughly the period to which scholars date the Book of Genesis.

Joseph's half-brothers were jealous of him; most of them plotted to kill him, with the exception of Reuben, who suggested to have Joseph thrown into an empty cistern, intending to rescue Joseph himself. Unaware of this secondary intention, the others obeyed his first. Upon imprisoning Joseph, the brothers saw a camel caravan carrying spices and perfumes to Egypt, and sold Joseph to these merchants. Thereafter the guilty brothers painted goat's blood on Joseph's coat  and showed it to Jacob, who therefore believed Joseph dead. More

Pietro della Vecchia (1602/03-1678), also known as Pietro Muttoni or Pietro della Vecchia Muttoni, was the son of a prominent Venetian family. His early works are deeply influenced by Carlo Saraceni and his student, which has led to the assumption that the painter may has initially been trained by them. After a possible short stay in Rome around 1621-22, he was active in the studio of Alessandro Varotari, called Padovanino, around 1625 and first familiarized with the masters of the Venetian Cinquecento, such as Titian and Giorgione. Many works by the artist can be still found in churches in Venice, as well as in important international collections, such as the Kunsthistorisches Museum in Vienna, the Louvre in Paris, the Gemäldegalerie in Dresden and the National Gallery in Dublin. More

Follower of Luca Giordano, called Fa Presto, NAPLES 1634 - 1705
Oil on canvas
40.8 x 51.2 cm.; 16 x 20 1/8  in.
Private Collection

The Presentation of Jesus at the Temple, according to the gospel, Mary and Joseph took the Infant Jesus to the Temple in Jerusalem forty days after his birth to complete Mary's ritual purification after childbirth, and to perform the redemption of the firstborn son. Luke explicitly says that Joseph and Mary take the option provided for poor people (those who could not afford a lamb), sacrificing "a pair of turtledoves, or two young pigeons." Leviticus indicates that this event should take place forty days after birth for a male child, hence the Presentation is celebrated forty days after Christmas. More

Luca Giordano (18 October 1634 – 12 January 1705) was an Italian late Baroque painter and printmaker in etching. Fluent and decorative, he worked successfully in Naples and Rome, Florence and Venice, before spending a decade in Spain.

Born in Naples, Giordano was the son of the painter Antonio Giordano. In around 1650 he was apprenticed to Ribera, and his early work was heavily influenced by his teacher. Like Ribera, he painted many half-length figures of philosophers, either imaginary portraits of specific figures, or generic types.

He acquired the nickname Luca fa presto, which translates into "Luca paints quickly." His speed, in design as well as handiwork, and his versatility, which enabled him to imitate other painters deceptively, earned for him two other epithets, "The Thunderbolt" (Fulmine) and "The Proteus" of painting.

Following a period studying in Rome, Parma and Venice, Giordano developed an elaborate Baroque style fusing Venetian and Roman Influences. His mature work combines the ornamental pomp of Paul Veronese with the lively complex schemes, the "grand manner", of Pietro da Cortona. He is also noted for his lively and showy use of colour. More

Studio of Johann Carl Loth, MUNICH 1632 - 1698 VENICE
Oil on canvas
130 x 167.5 cm.; 51 1/8  x 66 in.
Private Collection

The Parable of the Prodigal Son is one of the parables of Jesus Christ, which he shares it with his disciples, the Pharisees and others.

In the story, a father has two sons. The younger son asks for his inheritance and after wasting his fortune, becomes destitute. He returns home with the intention of begging his father to be made one of his hired servants, expecting his relationship with his father is likely severed. The father welcomes him back and celebrates his return. The older son refuses to participate. The father reminds the older son that one day he will inherit everything. But, they should still celebrate the return of the younger son because he was lost and is now found. More

Johann Carl Loth (1632 – 6 October 1698) was a German Baroque painter, born in Munich but active most of his life in Venice. He was the son and pupil of Johann Ulrich Loth (1590–1662) and was possibly influenced by Giovan Battista Langetti. He was commissioned to paint for the emperor Leopold I in Vienna. He worked together with Pietro Liberi in Venice, where he was during the years 1663-1698. His brother Franz Loth was also a painter in Venice and Germany. More

Follower of Francesco Ruschi
Oil on canvas
152.1 x 175.7 cm.; 60 x 69 1/4  in.
Private Collection

Hagar is a biblical person in the Book of Genesis Chapter 16. She was an Egyptian handmaid of Sarah, who gave her to Abraham "to wife" to bear a child. The product of the union was Abraham's firstborn, Ishmael, the progenitor of the Ishmaelites.
After Sarah gave birth to Isaac, and the tension between the women returned. At a celebration after Isaac was weaned, Sarah found the teenage Ishmael mocking her son, and demanded that Abraham send Hagar and her son away. She declared that Ishmael would not share in Isaac's inheritance. Abraham was greatly distressed but God told Abraham to do as his wife commanded because God's promise would be carried out through both Isaac and Ishmael.
The name Hagar originates from the Book of Genesis, and is only alluded to in the Qur'an. She is considered Abraham's second wife in the Islamic faith and acknowledged in all Abrahamic faiths. In mainstream Christianity, she is considered a concubine to Abraham. More

Francesco Ruschi was an Italian painter born in Rome around 1610. He studied in Rome under Giuseppe Cesari, Francesco Albani and Pietro da Cortona. His work also shows the influence of Caravaggio. He settled in Venice before 1629. He became a friend of the writer Giovan Francesco Loredan, for whom he drew the cover pages of several works. He moved to Treviso from 1656, and died there in 1661. More

Valentin de Boulogne
Denial of Saint Peter, (ca. 1615–17)
Oil on canvas
67 1/2 × 94 7/8 inches
Fondazione di Studi di Storia dell’Arte Roberto Longhi, Florence

The Denial of Peter refers to three acts of denial of Jesus by the Apostle Peter as described in all four Gospels of the New Testament.

All four Canonical Gospels state that during Jesus' Last Supper with his disciples, he predicted that Peter would deny knowledge of him, stating that Peter would disown him before the rooster crowed the next morning. Following the arrest of Jesus Peter denied knowing him thrice, but after the third denial, heard the rooster crow and recalled the prediction as Jesus turned to look at him. Peter then began to cry bitterly. This final incident is known as the Repentance of Peter.

The emotional turmoil and turbulent emotions behind Peter's denial and later repentance have been the subject of major works of art for centuries. Examples include Caravaggio's Denial of Saint Peter, which is now at the Metropolitan Museum of Art. More

Valentin de Boulogne (before 3 January 1591 – 19 August 1632), sometimes referred to as Le Valentin, was a French painter in the tenebrist style. Though little is known of Valentin de Boulogne’s early life, he is considered one of most devoted French followers of Caravaggio. De Boulogne joined a society of foreign artists while in Rome known as Bentvueghels, or “Birds of a Feather.” He also had a close working relationship with Nicolas Poussin, with whom he was frequently compared. Though de Boulogne painted biblical scenes, allegorical images, and portraits, he is best remembered for his genre scenes of merrymaking characters enjoying music, drinks, and games in taverns. These were in part inspired by Bartolomeo Manfredi’s genre paintings, and rendered with Caravaggesque chiaroscuro. Anecdotes report that de Boulogne passed away at his early age after contracting a fever after a night carousing at a tavern. More

Valentin de Boulogne, (before 3 January 1591 – 19 August 1632),
Martyrdom of Saints Processus and Martinian, c. 1629
Oil on canvas
118 7/8 x 75 9/16 inches
Vatican Pinoteca, Rome

Martinian and Processus were Christian martyrs of ancient Rome. Neither the years they lived nor the circumstances of their deaths are known; although they are currently buried in St. Peter's Basilica in Rome.

According to legend, Martinian and Processus were imperial soldiers assigned as the warders of Saint Peter and Saint Paul in the Mamertine Prison.[5] The apostles converted their jailers after a spring flowed miraculously in the prison. Peter then baptized them in the miraculous waters. By order of the emperor Nero, the guards were then arrested, tortured and beheaded. After their martyrdom with Paul, a sympathizer called Lucina buried them in her own cemetery. More

Valentin de Boulogne (before 3 January 1591 – 19 August 1632), see above

Vincente Macip (known in Valencia towards 1490-1550) 
Descent from the Cross 
pine panel altarpiece element 
96 x 72 cm
Private Collection

By its shape and dimensions this panel comes from an altarpiece whose other elements have not yet been found. 

The Descent from the Cross, or Deposition of Christ, is the scene, as depicted in art, from the Gospels' accounts of Joseph of Arimathea and Nicodemus taking Christ down from the cross after his crucifixion. In Byzantine art the topic became popular in the 9th century, and in the West from the 10th century. The Descent from the Cross is the 13th Station of the Cross.

Other figures not mentioned in the Gospels who are often included in depictions of this subject include St. John the Evangelist, who is sometimes depicted supporting a fainting Mary, and Mary Magdalene. The Gospels mention an undefined number of women as watching the crucifixion, including the Three Marys and Mary Salome.. More

Vicente Masip (also Vicente Macip) (Andilla, 1475 - Valencia, 1545) was a Spanish painter of the Renaissance period. His son was Juan Vicente Masip, and his grandson was named Vicente Masip Comes, also known as Vicent de Joanes.

Born in Andilla, he was influenced on the Quattrocento style. He is considered a Quattrocento painter. One of his early works was the altarpiece of Porta-Coeli in the Museu de Belles Arts de València. He was also responsible for the old high altar of the Segorbe Cathedral between 1529 and 1532 He is also attributed the altarpiece of the Virgin of the Remedy of the Church of San Bartolomé de Benicarlo. It is a painting of the Virgin and Child Enthroned surrounded by various saints.

Vincente Macip (known in Valencia towards 1490-1550) 
Title Martyrdom of St Agnes, circa 1540 and circa 1545
Oil on panel
58 centímetros de diámetor
Prado Museum

The Museo del Prado owns two of his paintings representing the Visitation and the Martyrdom of St. Agnes, executed for the chapel of St. Thomas of Villanova in the convent of San Julián de Valencia. Somewhat overshadowed by the fame of his son who had more of an emotional style, but certainly better equipped, experts doubt the attribution of some works between parent and child, especially those who had been attributed the father. More

Agnes of Rome (c. 291 – c. 304) was a popular saint about whom little is known, Agnes is said to have been a beautiful, wealthy Roman maiden who had, in childhood, dedicated herself to God. Some say that a rejected suitor betrayed her to authorities; others say that she was asked at 13 to sacrifice to the gods and marry, both of which she refused. Legends tell of her being thrown into a brothel, where her purity was miraculously preserved. Having escaped that fate, she was martyred. In the IV Century, Constantia, the daughter of Constantine, built a basilica on the site of her tomb. St. Ambrose wrote about Agnes in De virginitate, and Damasus I wrote an epitaph for her. Prudentius composed a hymn in her honor. Her emblem in art is the lamb because of the similarity between her name and the Latin word for lamb, agnus. More

Martin Schongauer, (c. 1445, Colmar – 2 February 1491, Breisach) 
The Beheading of Saint Catherine 
Prepared panel. 
22,5 x 19,5cm - 8 7/8 x 7 11/16 IN. 
Private Collection

Saint Catherine of Alexandria is, according to tradition, a Christian saint and virgin, who was martyred in the early 4th century at the hands of the pagan emperor Maxentius. According to her hagiography, she was both a princess and a noted scholar, who became a Christian around the age of fourteen, and converted hundreds of people to Christianity. She was martyred around the age of 18. Over 1,100 years following her martyrdom, St. Joan of Arc identified Catherine as one of the Saints who appeared to her and counselled her.

The Eastern Orthodox Church venerates her as a Great Martyr, and celebrates her feast day on 24 or 25 November (depending on the local tradition). In the Catholic Church she is traditionally revered as one of the Fourteen Holy Helpers. In 1969 the Catholic Church removed her feast day from the General Roman Calendar;[4] however, she continued to be commemorated in the Roman Martyrology on 25 November. More

Martin Schongauer (c. 1445, Colmar – 2 February 1491, Breisach), known in Italy as Bel Martino or Martino d'Anversa, was a German engraver and painter. He was the most important German printmaker before Albrecht Dürer.

Schongauer was born in about 1440 in Colmar, Alsace, probably the third of the four sons of Caspar Schongauer, a goldsmith from Augsburg who taught his son the art of engraving. Colmar is now in France but was then part of the Holy Roman Empire. He may well have been trained by Master E. S. The art historian A. Hyatt Mayor saw both their individual styles in different parts of a single engraving, and all the works with Schongauer's M†S monogram show a fully developed style. Schongauer established at Colmar a very important school of engraving, out of which grew the "Little Masters" of the succeeding generation, and a large group of Nuremberg artists. More

Antwerp School circa 1525, circle of Barend van Orley 
Scenes from the Passion of Christ 
Oak panels, three boards
66 x 85,5cm - 26 X 33 IN 11/16. 
Private Collection

In Christianity, the Passion (from Late Latin: passionem "suffering, enduring") is the short final period in the life of Jesus covering his entrance visit to Jerusalem and leading to his crucifixion on Mount Calvary, defining the climactic event central to Christian doctrine of Salvation History.

The word passion has since taken on a more general application and now may also apply to accounts of the suffering and death of Christian martyrs, sometimes using the Latin form passio.  More

Bernard van Orley (between 1487 and 1491 – 6 January 1541), , was a leading artist in Dutch and Flemish Renaissance painting, though he was at least as active as a leading designer of Brussels tapestry and, at the end of his life, stained glass. Although he never visited Italy, he belongs to the group of Italianizing Flemish painters called the Romanists, who were influenced by Italian Renaissance painting, in his case especially by Raphael.

He was born and died in Brussels, and was the court artist of the Habsburg rulers, and "served as a sort of commissioner of the arts for the Brussels town council". He was extremely productive, concentrating on the design of his works, and leaving their actual execution largely to others in the case of painting. 

Accordingly, his many surviving works (somewhat depleted in number by Reformation iconoclasm) vary considerably in quality. His paintings are generally either religious subjects or portraits, these mostly of Habsburgs repeated in several versions by the workshop, with few mythological subjects. More

ITALIAN school of the seventeenth century, after Daniele da Volterra 
Descent from the Cross 
Oil on Canvas 
128 X 91cm - 50 3/8 X 35 7/8 IN
Private Collection

The Descent from the Cross, or Deposition of Christ, see above

Daniele Ricciarelli (c. 1509 – 4 April 1566), better known as Daniele da Volterra, see below.

Daniele da Volterra (1509–1566)
The Deposition/ Descent from the Cross , c. 1545
After its restoration in 2004
Santissima Trinità dei Monti, titular church in Rome

Daniele da Volterra (1509–1566)
The Deposition/ Descent from the Cross , c. 1545
Detail, Before and After its restoration in 2004

The Descent from the Cross, after the painting by Daniele da Volterra in Sta Trinità dei Monti, Rome; in outline. 1811
Height: 220 millimetres, Width: 138 millimetres

The Descent from the Cross, or Deposition of Christ, see above

Daniele Ricciarelli (c. 1509 – 4 April 1566), better known as Daniele da Volterra, was a Mannerist Italian painter and sculptor.

Daniele Ricciarelli was born in Volterra (in today's Tuscany). As a boy, he initially studied with the Sienese artists. He left to Rome in 1535, and helped paint the frescoes in the Palazzo Massimo alle Colonne.

From 1538 to 1541 he helped Perin with the painting of frescoes in the villa of Cardinal Trivuzio at Salone. He was commissioned the painting of a frieze in the main salon of the Palazzo Massimo alle Colonne, with the life of Fabius Maximus. In Rotman he also started working in the circle of Michelangelo and befriended him. Michelangelo used his influence with Pope Paul III to secure Daniele commissions and the post of superintendent of the works of the Vatican, a position he retained until the Pope's death. Michelangelo also provided him with sketches on which Daniele based some of his paintings, especially his series of frescoes in the Orsini chapel in the Trinity College.

Later Daniele was commissioned by Paul III to complete the decoration of the Sala Regia. On the death of the pope in 1549 he lost his position as superintendent and the pension to which it entitled him. He then devoted himself chiefly to sculpture.

He died in Rome in 1566. More

Francesco Raibolini, called Francia (Bologna 1440-1517) 
The Virgin and Child in a landscape 
Poplar panel, blackened, strengthened 
63 x 46 cm - 24 13/16 X 18 1/8 IN
Private Collection

Here, the artist has endeavored to represent the Virgin in a setting of great simplicity, the landscape being animated by a few trees whose frail trunks punctuate the background. She introduces the Child before us, supporting him gently, while he blesses the world with his right hand. The serenity that emanates from the faces is accentuated by the delicacy of the pattern and the colors: the harmony of the blues and greens that is also found in the mantle of the Virgin is raised only by the red of the dress and by a little Gold for embroidery. More

Francesco Raibolini (1447 – January 5, 1517), called Francia, was an Italian painter, goldsmith, and medallist from Bologna, who was also director of the city mint.

He may have trained with Marco Zoppo and was first mentioned as a painter in 1486. His earliest known work is the Felicini Madonna, which is signed and dated 1494. He worked in partnership with Lorenzo Costa, and was influenced by Ercole de' Roberti's and Costa's style, until 1506, when Francia became a court painter in Mantua, after which time he was influenced more by Perugino and Raphael. He himself trained Marcantonio Raimondi and several other artists; he produced niellos, in which Raimondi first learnt to engrave, soon excelling his master, according to Vasari. Raphael's Santa Cecilia is supposed to have produced such a feeling of inferiority in Francia that it caused him to die of depression. However, as his friendship with Raphael is now well-known, this story has been discredited.

He died in Bologna. His sons Giacomo Francia and Giulio Francia were also artists. Among his works is a Baptism of Christ in Lisbon. More

Andrea Meldolla, (c. 1510/1515–1563) 
Lamentation over the Dead Christ 
Oil on Canvas 
130 X 118cm - 51 1/8 X 46 1/2 IN
Private Collection

Schiavone represented the lament over the body of Christ several times. His starting point is an unfinished print of Parmesan. The main difference is that Saint John becomes a Mary Magdalene adjusting her veil on the right. The yellow Christ cloth in the version of the Coin collection is here blue. More

The Lamentation of Christ is a very common subject in Christian art from the High Middle Ages to the Baroque. After Jesus was crucified, his body was removed from the cross and his friends mourned over his body. This event has been depicted by many different artists.

Lamentation works are very often included in cycles of the Life of Christ, and also form the subject of many individual works. One specific type of Lamentation depicts only Jesus' mother Mary cradling his body. These are known as Pietà (Italian for "pity") More

Andrea Meldolla (Croatian: Andrija Medulić), also known as Andrea Schiavone or Andrea Lo Schiavone (c. 1510/1515–1563) was an Italian Renaissance painter and etcher, born in present-day Croatia, active mainly in the city of Venice.

Meldolla was born in the Venetian-ruled city of Zara, the son of a garrison commander of a post. His family was originally from the small town of Meldola, close to the city of Forlì in Romagna.

He trained either in Zara or in Venice. There are unproven claims that he trained with Bonifazio de Pitati. He worked in fresco, panel painting, and etching (teaching himself to etch by working initially from drawings by Parmigianino). By 1540, he was well enough established in Venice that Giorgio Vasari commissioned him a large battle picture. Although initially much influenced by Parmigianino and Italian Mannerism, "he was also a strikingly daring exponent of Venetian painting techniques", and ultimately combined both in his works, influencing Titian, Tintoretto, and Jacopo Bassano among others. His works "shocked some contemporaries and stimulated others". By the 1550s, he had achieved a new synthesis.

His etchings weres similarly innovative. His technique was unlike that of any contemporary: unsystematically he used dense webs of light, fine, multidirectional hatching to create a tonal continuum embracing form, light, shadow, and air. More

Attribué à Pietro Testa (1611–1650) 
La Flagellation/ The Flagellation
Oil on Canvas 
130 X 118cm - 51 1/8 X 46 1/2 IN
Private Collection

The Flagellation of Christ, sometimes known as Christ at the Column or the Scourging at the Pillar, is a scene from the Passion of Christ very frequently shown in Christian art, in cycles of the Passion or the larger subject of the Life of Christ. It is the fourth station of the modern alternate Stations of the Cross, and a Sorrowful Mystery of the Rosary. The column to which Christ is normally tied, and the rope, scourge, whip or birch are elements in the Arma Christi. The Basilica di Santa Prassede in Rome, claimed to possess the original column. More

Pietro Testa (1611–1650) was an Italian High Baroque artist, best known as a printmaker and draftsman, who was active in Rome. Born in Lucca, Testa moved to Rome early in life. He was friends with Nicolas Poussin and Francesco Mola.

 His early prints, from the 1630s, were often religious and achieve very delicate effects of light; his later ones became harder and more austere in stylei. His prints were successful and frequently copied.

Between 1638 and 1644, Testa completed a set of complex and highly detailed etchings on the theme of The Seasons, which served as an expression of his interest in Platonic philosophy. 

Testa was influenced by Leonardo da Vinci to favor direct observation of natural phenomena, a fact that may have limited his productivity as an artist. Testa was standing on a Tiber riverbank, "drawing and observing some reflections of the rainbow in the water," when he fell in and drowned. More

Pieter Brueghel the Elder (1526/1530–1569)
The Census at Bethlehem, c. 1566
Oil on oak
Height: 116 cm (45.7 in). Width: 164 cm (64.6 in).
Royal Museums of Fine Arts of Belgium

Caesar Augustus issued a decree that a census should be taken of the entire Roman world; requiring that all people return to the lands of their origin. In Joseph's case, that was Bethlehem, the city of David. More

Pieter Bruegel (also Brueghel) the Elder (c. 1525 – 9 September 1569) was a Netherlandish Renaissance painter and printmaker from Brabant, known for his landscapes and peasant scenes. He is sometimes referred to as the "Peasant Bruegel". From 1559, he dropped the 'h' from his name and signed his paintings as Bruegel.

Bruegel was born in Breda, and entered the Antwerp painters' guild in 1551, it is inferred that he was born between 1525 and 1530. His master was the Antwerp painter Pieter Coecke van Aelst, whose daughter Maria Bruegel married in 1563. 

Bruegel became a free master in the Guild of Saint Luke of Antwerp. In 1552 Bruegel was assigned to paint the rear of two wings of a triptych in Mechelen; the middle panel was painted by Pieter Balten. Between 1552 and 1553 Bruegel traveled to Italy, probably by way of France. He visited Rome, where he met the miniaturist Giulio Clovio, whose will of 1578 lists three paintings by Bruegel. About 1555 Bruegel returned to Antwerp by way of the Alps, which resulted in a number of exquisite drawings of mountain landscapes. These sketches, which form the basis for many of his later paintings, are not records of actual places but "composites" made in order to investigate the organic life of forms in nature.

He received the nickname "Peasant Bruegel" or "Bruegel the Peasant" for his practice of dressing up like a peasant in order to socialize at weddings and other celebrations, thereby gaining inspiration and authentic details for his genre paintings. He died in Brussels on 9 September 1569 and was buried in the Kapellekerk. More

Acknowledgement: Sotheby'sTAJAN

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