Sunday, November 22, 2015

22 Works, RELIGIOUS ART - Paintings from the Bible, Flemish and Baroque, with footnotes, 8

Attributed to Lippo d'Andrea
FLORENCE 1370/1371 - BEFORE 1451

Lippo d'Andrea, formerly known as the Pseudo-Ambrogio di Baldese, was born in Florence in either 1370 or 1371. He enrolled in the Compagnia di San Luca in 1411 and in the same year worked on the fresco decoration of the facade of the Palazzo del Ceppo in Prato, alongside Niccolò di Pietro Gerini, Ambrogio di Baldese and Alvaro di Pietro. To judge by the large body of work on both a monumental and intimate scale attributed to him by scholars such as Georg Pudelko, Federico Zeri and Miklós Boskovits, Lippo must have enjoyed considerable success and renown during his lifetime, evidence of the lingering taste in Florence for a more conservative style of painting.1 The rendering of the face, the fall of the costume and the pose of Saint Dominic are directly comparable to Lippo's panel depicting Saint Jerome in the Muzeum Czartoryskich, Kraków 

Saint Dominic, (1170 – August 6, 1221), was a Spanish priest and founder of the Dominican Order. Dominic is the patron saint of astronomers.

Saint Apollonia was a virgin martyr who suffered in Alexandria during a local uprising against the Christians prior to the persecution of Decius. According to legend, her torture included having all of her teeth violently pulled out or shattered. For this reason, she is popularly regarded as the patroness of dentistry and those suffering from toothache or other dental problems.

Lippo d'Andrea di Lippo (1370/1371 - before 1451) was a Florentine painter, formerly known as Pseudo-Ambrogio di Baldese. In 1411, he joined the Compagnia di San Luca. That same year he was commissioned to paint frescoes on the facade of the Palazzo del Ceppo in Prato. His name has also been connected, although without any documentary proof, to the frescoes in the Nerli Chapel at Santa Maria del Carmine, Florence; the appearance in 1402 of the name 'Lippo' has led to speculations that the creator of the frescoes was indeed Lippo d'Andrea. The other surviving reference to his name comes in 1435-36. That year, Lippo d'Andrea was a member of the group, which included Bicci di Lorenzo, Giovanni dal Ponte, and Rossello di Jacopo Franchi, that was given the task of painting frescoes of the apostles in the tribune chapels of Florence cathedral to celebrate the consecration of the newly built dome by Pope Eugene IV. More

Lippo d'Andrea
Madonna and Child Enthroned, c. first half of 15th century
Tempera on panel
Height: 87 cm (34.3 in). Width: 46 cm (18.1 in)
Middlebury College Museum of Art 

Follower of Benvenuto Tisi, called il Garofalo
oil on panel,
32.6 by 27.2 cm.; 12 7/8  by 10 5/8  in.

Judith, a beautiful widow, is able to enter the tent of Holofernes because of his desire for her. Holofernes was an Assyrian general who was about to destroy Judith's home, the city of Bethulia. Overcome with drink, he passes out and is decapitated by Judith; his head is taken away in a basket (often depicted as carried by an elderly female servant). More

Benvenuto Tisi (or Il Garofalo) (1481 – September 6, 1559) was a Late-Renaissance-Mannerist Italian painter of the School of Ferrara. Garofalo's career began attached to the court of the Duke d'Este. His early works have been described as "idyllic", but they often conform to the elaborate conceits favored by the artistically refined Ferrarese court. His nickname, Garofalo, may derive from his habit of signing some works with a picture of a carnation (in Italian, garofano). More

Follower of Jan van der Straet, called Stradanus THE CRUCIFIXION oil and gold leaf on copper 28.7 by 20.7 cm., 11 1/4  by 8 1/8  in.:
Follower of Jan van der Straet, called Stradanus
oil and gold leaf on copper
28.7 by 20.7 cm., 11 1/4  by 8 1/8  in.

Giovanni Stradano or Jan Van der Straet or van der Straat or Stradanus or Stratensis (1523 – 11 February 1605) was a Flanders-born mannerist artist active mainly in 16th century Florence. Born in Bruges, he began his training in the shop of his father, then in Antwerp with Pieter Aertsen. By 1545, he had joined the Antwerp guild of Saint Luke or painters', the equivalent of the Roman (Accademia San Luca). He reached Florence in 1550, where he entered in the service of the Medici Dukes and Giorgio Vasari. The Medici court was his main patron, and he designed a number of scenes for tapestries and frescoes to decorate the Palazzo Vecchio in Florence, the Medici Villa at Poggio a Caiano, and providing cartoons for the Arazzeria Medicea. He also worked for the Pazzi Family in their estates in Montemurlo.

Many of his works depict the hunt, designs which became so popular they were translated into prints. Stradanus collaborated with printmakers Hieronymus Cock and the Galle family in Antwerp to produce hundreds of prints on a variety of subjects, most of which were repeatedly reproduced and often bound into volumes. He also worked with Francesco Salviati in the decoration of the Vatican Belvedere. He was one of the artists involved in the Studiolo of Francesco I (1567-1577), to which he contributed two paintings including The Alchemist's Studio.

He died at Florence in 1605. More

Francesco Curradi FLORENCE 1570 - 1661 MARTYRDOM OF ST. LAWRENCE oil on copper 43.5 by 33 cm., 17 1/8  by 13 in.:
Francesco Curradi
FLORENCE 1570 - 1661
oil on copper
43.5 by 33 cm., 17 1/8  by 13 in.

Martyrdom of Saint Lawrence is a painting by the Italian artist Francesco Curradi. It depicts the saint at the moment of his martyrdom, being burnt alive on a gridiron.

Lawrence of Rome (c. 225–258) was one of the seven deacons of Ancient Rome under Pope Sixtus II that were martyred during the persecution by Emperor Valerian in 258. More

Francesco Curradi or Currado (15 November 1570 – 1661) was an Italian painter, born and active in Florence. He was the son of a jeweller, Taddeo, and trained under Giovanni Battista Naldini and in 1590 matriculated in the Accademia del Disegno, Florence. His first independent works from 1597 to 1598 were for churches in Volterra, including that in the Colleoni chapel of the local Duomo. He helped paint the frescoes of the Fame Exalting Michelangelo (c. 1616–1617) for the Casa Buonarroti.

In 1622 he painted the St Francis Xavier preaching in India for the church of San Giovannino degli Scolopi in Florence, and a canvas of Narcissus and Herminia among shepherds commissioned by the cardinal Carlo de' Medici for his Casino di San Marco. He also executed seven lunettes in the chapel of Villa del Poggio Imperiale with the Story of Mary Magdalen. Curradi painted the Crowning of the Virgin in 1646 for the Benedictine Abbey of Vallombrosa, and a Preaching of John the Baptist for the Rondoni chapel in the church of Santa Trinita in 1649. The Uffizi has two paintings: a Martyrdom of Santa Tecla and a Beatification of the Magdalen. More

Follower of Annibale Carracci SUSANNA AND THE ELDERS oil on canvas 42.7 by 34 cm., 18 3/4  by 13 1/4  in.:
Follower of Annibale Carracci
oil on canvas
42.7 by 34 cm., 18 3/4  by 13 1/4  in.

A fair Hebrew wife named Susanna was falsely accused by lecherous voyeurs. As she bathes in her garden, having sent her attendants away, two lustful elders secretly observe the lovely Susanna. When she makes her way back to her house, they accost her, threatening to claim that she was meeting a young man in the garden unless she agrees to have sex with them.

She refuses to be blackmailed and is arrested and about to be put to death for promiscuity when a young man named Daniel interrupts the proceedings, shouting that the elders should be questioned to prevent the death of an innocent. After being separated, the two men are questioned about details of what they saw but disagreed about the tree under which Susanna supposedly met her lover. The great difference in their stories makes the elders' lie plain to all the observers. The false accusers are put to death, and virtue triumphs. More

Francesco Ciseri (1858–1935), after Guido Reni (1575–1642)
Susanna and the Elders, c. 1620 until 1625
Oil on canvas
Height: 91.1 cm (35.9 in). Width: 115.3 cm (45.4 in).
Auckland Art Gallery

(Susanna and the Elders, See above)

Guido Reni (4 November 1575 – 18 August 1642)[1] was an Italian painter of high-Baroque style. Born in Bologna into a family of musicians, Guido Reni was the son of Daniele Reni and Ginevra de’ Pozzi. As a child of nine, he was apprenticed under the Bolognese studio of Denis Calvaert. Soon after, he was joined in that studio by Albani and Domenichino. When Reni was about twenty years old, the three Calvaert pupils migrated to the rising rival studio, named Accademia degli Incamminati (Academy of the "newly embarked", or progressives), led by Lodovico Carracci. They went on to form the nucleus of a prolific and successful school of Bolognese painters who followed Annibale Carracci to Rome. Like many other Bolognese painters, Reni's painting was thematic and eclectic in style. More

Pieter Schoubroeck (Hessheim 1560/80-1607 Frankenthal)
The Temptation of Saint Anthony
oil on panel
13.8 x 23.5 cm.

As recounted in the Golden Legend, Saint Anthony was the son of a wealthy Egyptian landowner. Upon the death of his parents, he relinquished all material possessions in order to lead the ascetic life of a hermit in the wilderness, and as such, is generally recognized as the founder of monasticism. While in the desert, Anthony was tormented by the Devil, who repeatedly tested his resolve by assailing him with hideous monsters and lustful demons.

Although of Flemish descent, Pieter Schoubroeck was one of the most prominent members of the Frankenthal School, a group of Protestant artists living in Frankenthal, Germany under the protection of Elector Palatine Frederick III. There, he may have studied with Gillis van Coninxloo III. In his predilection for colorful, detailed-filled composition, populated by numerous small figures, Schoubroeck was clearly inspired by the works of Jan Breughel the Elder, whose Temptation of Saint Anthony of circa 1595 may have been a direct source for the present painting.

Pieter van Lint (Antwerp 1609-1690)
The Circumcision of Christ
oil on copper
71.7 x 87.1 cm.

The circumcision of Jesus is an event from the life of Jesus according to the Gospel of Luke, which states in verse 2:21 that Jesus was circumcised eight days after his birth (traditionally January 1). This is in keeping with the Jewish law which holds that males should be circumcised eight days after birth during a Brit milah ceremony, at which they are also given their name. The circumcision of Christ became a very common subject in Christian art from the 10th century onwards, one of numerous events in the Life of Christ to be frequently depicted by artists. It was initially seen only as a scene in larger cycles, but by the Renaissance might be treated as an individual subject for a painting, or form the main subject in an altarpiece. More

Pieter van Lint or Peter van Lint (1609–1690) was a Flemish painter, draughtsman and designer of tapestries. He excelled in history paintings, genre scenes and portraits in the Flemish Baroque style with some Classisizing influence. He worked in Antwerp and Italy.

He was born in Antwerp where he trained under Artus Wolffort. During his training he frequently visited Antwerp’s churches to copy the paintings of his contemporaries such as Peter Paul Rubens as well as those of earlier generations such as Marten de Vos and the Francken brothers.[1]

Van Lint become a master in the Guild of Saint Luke in 1633. In that same year he traveled to Rome where he remained until 1640. In Rome he worked for Cardinal Domenico Ginnasi, Bishop of Ostia, who employed him to decorate the local cathedral. Van Lint also frescoed the Cybo family chapel in the Santa Maria del Popolo with the Legend of the True Cross in 1636-40. In addition to religious commissions, the artist painted numerous small genre scenes in the style of the Bamboccianti. 

His son Hendrik Frans van Lint was a celebrated landscape painter in Rome.

He died in Antwerp. More

Follower of Frederik van Valckenborch
The Feast of King Belshazzar
(upper centre)
oil on panel
74.2 x 104.8 cm.

Belshazzar was Coregent of Babylon, governing the country after his father, King Nabonidus, went into exile in 550 BCE. Belshazzar died after Babylon fell to the Persians in 539 BCE.

According to the Book of Daniel, Belshazzar holds a last great feast at which he sees a hand writing on a wall with the Aramaic words mene, mene, tekel, upharsin, which Daniel interprets as a judgment from God foretelling the fall of Babylon. More

Frederik van Valckenborch (1566, Antwerp –1623, Nuremberg) was a Flemish painter and draughtsman known for his imaginary landscapes with figures executed in a late Mannerist style. His drawings are more realistic and demonstrate an impulse towards topographical accuracy. He was mainly active in Germany. More

Circle of Hans van Aachen (Cologne 1552-1616 Prague)
The Adoration of the Magi
oil on copper
35.4 x 27.7 cm.

The Adoration of the Magi (anglicized from the Matthean Vulgate Latin section title: A Magis adoratur) is the name traditionally given to the subject in the Nativity of Jesus in art in which the three Magi, represented as kings, especially in the West, having found Jesus by following a star, lay before him gifts of gold, frankincense, and myrrh, and worship him. More

Hans von Aachen (1552 – 4 March 1615), was a German mannerist painter. He was born in Cologne, but his name is derived from the birthplace of his father, Aachen, in Germany. He began painting in Germany as a pupil of the Flemish master E. Jerrigh. He then spent a long period in Italy. He lived in Venice from 1574 to 1588 and toured Florence and Rome during that period. He initially became a pupil of Kaspar Rems, but soon decided to develop his own mannerist technique, by studying Tintoretto and Michelangelo's followers. However, during all of his life he was influenced by the style of Bartholomeus Spranger and Hendrick Goltzius who dominated the art scene in Germany at the time.

He returned to Germany in 1588 where he became well known as a painter of portraits for noble houses. He also produced historical and religious scenes and earned a wide reputation. He painted several works for Duke William V of Bavaria. He married Regina, the daughter of the composer Orlando di Lasso in Munich. In Munich he came into contact with the Imperial Court in Prague. In 1592 he was appointed official painter of Rudolph II, Holy Roman Emperor. However, Von Aachen only moved to Prague years later, where he stayed and was commissioned to paint mythological and allegorical subjects such as his Liberation of Hungary (1598, Budapest). Emperor Rudolph II conferred knighthood on him in 1605. He died in Prague. More

Studio of Marcellus Coffermans (active in Antwerp 1549-1575)
The Adoration of the Magi
oil on panel
53.8 x 40.5 cm.

Marcellus Coffermans (1520 – 1578), was a Flemish renaissance painter. He was born in Antwerp and is known for religious works and copies after other painters. He died in Antwerp.

Jacob de Backer and studio
(Antwerp 1540/45-1591/99)
The Last Judgement
oil on panel
125 x 95 cm.

Jacob de Backer and studio (Antwerp 1540/45-1591/99). Although one of the foremost history painters in Antwerp during the final decades of the sixteenth century, little is known about Jacob de Backer’s short life and career. He led a busy workshop and was quite prolific but for some time no more than three works could be attributed to him. .

Of nearly every composition by or attributed to De Backer two or more versions exist and large-scale depictions of the Last Judgment were one of the signature products of De Backer’s studio, and were produced in large numbers. The present work is a competently executed version of the Goetkind epitaph. The composition and graceful figures recur in De Backer’s treatment of the Last Judgment in the Antwerp Koninklijke Museum voor Schone Kunsten (inv. 653), a painting that has long been regarded as the artist’s earliest dated work of 1571.

The subject of the Last Judgment allowed for the depiction of large groups of naked figures and invited De Backer to explore a novel stylistic idiom inspired by contemporary Florentine and Roman art – especially Bronzino, Vasari and Salviati – and which places the idealized beauty of the human body at centre stage. The present panel exemplifes De Backer’s art beautifully.

Chrispijn van den Broeck (Mechelen 1524-1590/91 Antwerp)
Mary Magdalen washing Christ’s feet in the house of Simon the Pharisee
oil on panel
75.5 x 56.5 cm.

Luke 7:38. A Sinful Woman Anoints Jesus …37. And there was a woman in the city who was a sinner; and when she learned that He was reclining at the table in the Pharisee's house, she brought an alabaster vial of perfume, 38and standing behind Him at His feet, weeping, she began to wet His feet with her tears, and kept wiping them with the hair of her head, and kissing His feet and anointing them with the perfume. More

Crispin van den Broeck (1523 – c. 1591) was a Flemish painter. He was born in Mechelen. He came from a family of artists, was probably trained by his father, and was the brother of Willem van den Broeck and Hendrick van den Broeck. He worked as a painter, draftsman and engraver. He was enlisted as a master in the Guild of St. Luke of Antwerp in 1555–6, where he became a citizen in 1559.

In Antwerp he was a collaborator of Frans Floris with whom he remained until the master’s death in 1570. According to Karel van Mander, Crispin van den Broeck and Frans Pourbus the elder completed an altarpiece for the Grand-Prior of Spain left incomplete at the time of Floris’s death. Van Mander also claimed that Crispin van den Broek was 'a good inventor... clever at large nudes and just as good an architect'. Crispin van den Broek died in Antwerp sometime between 1589 and 6 February 1591. More

Jan Erasmus Quellinus (Antwerp 1634-1715 Mechelen)
Jacob and his family on the way to Canaan
oil on canvas
223.5 x 142.5 cm.

God spoke to Jacob: “Return to the land of your fathers, and I shall be with you.” Jacob asked his wives to come out to the field where he was with his herds, and said to them: “You know that I have served your father with all my strength. Yet he has deceived me so often and changed my wages ten times. But God did not permit him to do me evil. Now God has ordered me to return to the land of my birth.” Rachel and Leah replied: “Whatever God told you to do, do!”

Assured of his wives’ approval, Jacob prepared everything necessary for the long and difficult journey. He did not reveal his intentions to Laban, knowing that his uncle would not let him go. One day, when Laban was away, Jacob left for Canaan with his wives, children, and everything that belonged to him. As soon as Laban heard of Jacob’s secret departure, he gathered his men and pursued him... More

Jan-Erasmus Quellinus (Antwerp, 1634 – Mechelen, 11 March 1715) was a Flemish painter and draughtsman and a member of the famous Quellinus family of artists. He was one of the last prominent representatives of the great Flemish school of history and portrait painting in the 17th century. His work displays the classicizing influences of his father Erasmus Quellinus the Younger and Paolo Veronese.

Jan-Erasmus resided in Rome from 1657 to 1659. In 1661 he joined the Antwerp Guild of Saint Luke as a member of the Guild. Around 1680 Quellinus worked in Vienna for the Habsburg court as a court painter to Emperor Leopold I. The most important commission he completed was a series of 15 ceiling paintings on events in the life of Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor. Some of these works are now in the Kunsthistorisches Museum in Vienna.

He returned to Antwerp where between the years 1685 and 1712 he worked on many commissions for churches in Antwerp and throughout Flanders. From 1712 the artist resided and worked in Mechelen where he died on 11 March 1715. More

Studio of Frans Francken II (Antwerp 1581-1642)
The Parable of the royal wedding feast (Matthew 22: 11-13)
oil on panel
69.2 x 88 cm.

Jesus spoke a parable to those who were invited, when he noticed how they chose the best seats, and said to them, “When you are invited by anyone to a marriage feast, don’t sit in the best seat, since perhaps someone more honorable than you might be invited by him, and he who invited both of you would come and tell you, ‘Make room for this person.’ Then you would begin, with shame, to take the lowest place. But when you are invited, go and sit in the lowest place, so that when he who invited you comes, he may tell you, ‘Friend, move up higher.’ Then you will be honored in the presence of all who sit at the table with you. For everyone who exalts himself will be humbled, and whoever humbles himself will be exalted.”

He also said to the one who had invited him, “When you make a dinner or a supper, don’t call your friends, nor your brothers, nor your kinsmen, nor rich neighbors, or perhaps they might also return the favor, and pay you back. But when you make a feast, ask the poor, the maimed, the lame, or the blind; and you will be blessed, because they don’t have the resources to repay you. For you will be repaid in the resurrection of the righteous.” More

Frans Francken the Younger (Antwerp, 1581 – Antwerp, 6 May 1642) was a Flemish painter and the best-known member of the large Francken family of artists. He played an important role in the development of Flemish art in the first half of the 17th century through his innovations in genre painting and introduction of new subject matter.

He was a versatile artist who practised in many genres and introduced new subjects into Flemish art. Many of his works are small historical, allegorical and biblical cabinet paintings with the focus on figures. He also invented or popularized several new themes, such as genre scenes populated by monkeys (also referred to as singeries) and gallery paintings displaying a wealth of natural and artistic treasures against a neutral wall. He introduced many other unusual themes, such as paintings depicting witches and witchcraft, including portrayals of witches' sabbats. More

Willem van Herp I (Antwerp 1613/14-1677)
The Visitation
oil on copper
79.4 x 98 cm.

Several versions of this composition by Willem van Herp are known. However most are painted on canvas whereas the present lot depicts The Visitation on a large copper plate.

Mary left Nazareth immediately after the Annunciation and went "into the hill country...into a city of Judah" to attend her cousin Elizabeth. . Mary and Elizabeth are both pregnant. Mary is pregnant with Jesus and Elizabeth is pregnant with John the Baptist.  The purpose of this visit was to bring divine grace to both Elizabeth and her unborn child. Even though he was still in his mother's womb, John became aware of the presence of Christ, and leapt for joy as he was cleansed from original sin and filled with divine grace. Elizabeth also responded and recognised the presence of Jesus, thus Mary exercised her function as mediatrix between God and man for the first time.

Willem van Herp I or Willem van Herp the Elder (Antwerp, c. 1614–1677) was a Flemish Baroque painter specializing in religious paintings and small cabinet paintings of "low-life" genre scenes.

For a long time Willem van Herp was believed to have been a pupil of Peter Paul Rubens. Even though he was not his pupil he did borrow many of Rubens' motifs and touched up copies after Rubens for the art dealer Matthijs Musson. He is said to have trained with the minor artists Damiaan Wortelmans II and Hans Biermans. He may have spent some time abroad after his training. He was listed as an independent master in the Guild of St. Luke beginning in 1637. He spent his entire career in Antwerp.

He married Artus Wolffort, daughter of the painter Artus Wolffort. He was the father of Norbertus en Willem (II) van Herp, who both became painters, and daughters Maria Anna and Anna Maria.

He was the master of Norbertus van Herp and Melchior Hamers. More

Attributed to Frederik Bouttats I (Antwerp 1590-1661)
The Garden of Eden with the Fall of Men
oil on canvas
105.1 x 151 cm.

Frederik Bouttats the Elder (1590–1661) was a 17th-century oil painter from Antwerp, Belgium.

The Garden of Eden, (copy after Jan Brueghel the Elder)
by Frederik Bouttats the elder
Oil on panel,
55 x 85.5 cm
National Trust

File:Simon Vouet - Saint Peter Visiting Saint Agatha in Prison.jpg
Follower of Simon Vouet
Saint Peter visiting Saint Agatha in prison, c. 1624
oil on canvas
149.7 x 176.8 cm.

Saint Agatha died for her virginity. She was not unique in this. Having espoused herself to Christ by a vow of virginity, she refused to marry. For this, the judge Quintian, who wanted to marry her himself, declared her a Christian. Owing to the persecution of Decius (249-251) then raging, this public accusation meant apostasy or martyrdom. When the virgin would not be overcome by threats and torture, she was given, and chose, the grace of martyrdom.

One detail of her martyrdom was the cutting off of her breasts (or one breast, depending on the account). This was not unique. It was done to other martyrs. Saint Peter visited her in prison and healed these wounds. But she was again tortured and this time died of it. More

Simon Vouet (9 January 1590 – 30 June 1649) was a French painter and draftsman, who today is perhaps best remembered for helping to introduce the Italian Baroque style of painting to France. More

School of Pietro da Cortona (Cortona 1596-1669 Rome)
Madonna and Child with Saint Martina
oil on canvas
73.9 x 62.2 cm.

Saint Martina, a third-century martyr who was put to death for refusing to worship idols, gazes fervently at the Christ Child while holding the forked iron hook with which she was tortured, and accepting the palm of martyrdom.  Saint Martina held great personal significance for Pietro da Cortona, who painted her image numerous times. Excavations in the crypt, where the artist planned to be buried, uncovered Saint Martina’s remains. Pope Urban VIII came to view them, and his nephew Cardinal Francesco Barberini financed the rebuilding of the church—now rededicated to Saints Luke and Martina—with Cortona as architect. The preeminent painter in Rome of his day and an architect of considerable invention, Pietro da Cortona developed a robust style that was ideally suited to the glorification of the Church and prominent patrons. Cortona painted a number of grand frescoes for princely patrons in Rome and Florence, as well as altarpieces, history paintings, and designs for tombs and other projects. More

Pietro da Cortona (1 November 1596/7 – 16 May 1669) was born Pietro Berrettini, but is primarily known by the name of his native town of Cortona in Tuscany.[2] He was the leading Italian Baroque painter of his time and, along with his contemporaries and rivals Gian Lorenzo Bernini and Francesco Borromini, was one of the key figures in the emergence of Roman Baroque architecture. He was also an important designer of interior decorations. More

Jacob de Wet I
(Haarlem 1600/20-1675/91)
The sacrifce of Jephthah’s daughter
oil on panel
41.8 x 58.4 cm.

Jephthah appears in the Book of Judges as a judge over Israel for a period of six years. He lived in Gilead and was a member either of the tribe of Manasseh or of the tribe of Gad. His father's name is also given as Gilead and, as his mother is described as a prostitute, this may mean that his father may have been any of the men of that area. Jephthah led the Israelites in battle against Ammon and, after defeating the Ammonites, fulfilled a rash vow of his, by sacrificing his daughter. Traditionally, Jephthah is listed among major judges on the ground of the length of the biblical narrative referring to him, but his story also shows signs of minor judges, for instance only six years duration of his office as judge. More

Jacob Willemszoon de Wet or Jacob Willemsz. de Wet the Elder (c. 1610 – between 1675 and 1691) was a Dutch Golden Age painter, whose works were largely influenced by Rembrandt. De Wet was born and died in Haarlem. Little is known of his early life. Houbraken mentions him in passing as an art dealer of Haarlem in his biographical sketch of Philips Wouwerman, referring to him as Jan de Wet. 

De Wet became a member of the Haarlem Guild of St. Luke in 1632. Judging from the number of pupils, and the difficulties his son Jacob II had with launching an independent career, it seems that De Wet had a large and successful practise in Haarlem. His son Jacob II was the only one of 5 children who also became a painter. More

Acknowledgement: Sothebys