Jules Joseph Lefebvre (14 March 1834 – 24 February 1912) was a French figure painter, educator and theorist. Lefebvre was born in Tournan-en-Brie, Seine-et-Marne, on 14 March 1834. He entered the École nationale supérieure des Beaux-Arts in 1852 and was a pupil of Léon Cogniet.,He won the prestigious Prix de Rome in 1861. Between 1855 and 1898, he exhibited 72 portraits in the Paris Salon. In 1891, he became a member of the French Académie des Beaux-Arts.
He was professor at the Académie Julian in Paris. Lefebvre is chiefly important as an excellent and sympathetic teacher who numbered many Americans among his 1500 or more pupils. Among his famous students were Fernand Khnopff, Kenyon Cox, Félix Vallotton, Ernst Friedrich von Liphart, Georges Rochegrosse, the Scottish-born landscape painter William Hart, Walter Lofthouse Dean, and Edmund C. Tarbell, who became an American Impressionist painter.
Lefebvre died in Paris on 24 February 1912. More
It was the twelfth year of Nebuchadnezzar, who reigned over the Assyrians in the great city of Nineveh. Arphaxad was then reigning over the Medes in Ecbatana.
King Nebuchadnezzar sends delegates to several neighboring countries and regions, asking for alliance. From Persia to Egypt, from Lebanon to Judea, everyone ignores his request – who does he think he is? When the convoy returns with this message, Nebuchadnezzar flies into a rage.
Nebuchadnezzar dispatched his general Holofernes to take vengeance on the nations of the west that had withheld their assistance to his reign.
Holofernes assures Judith that she will not be harmed if she is willing to serve his master, Nebuchadnezzar. She confirms the report of Achior the Ammonite regarding the Israelites' invincibility. Then Holofernes said to her: "Take courage, lady; have no fear in your heart! Never have I harmed anyone who chose to serve Nebuchadnezzar, king of all the earth. Nor would I have raised my spear against your people who dwell in the mountain region, had they not despised me and brought this upon themselves. But now tell me why you fled from them and came to us. In any case, you have come to safety. Take courage! Your life is spared tonight and for the future. No one at all will harm you. Rather, you will be well treated, as are all the servants of my lord, King Nebuchadnezzar."
Then the servants of Holofernes led Judith into the tent, where she slept until midnight. Just before dawn, she rose & sent this message to Holofernes, "Give orders, my lord, to let your handmaid go out for prayer." So Holofernes ordered his bodyguards not to hinder her. Thus she stayed in the camp three days. Each night she went out to the ravine of Bethulia, where she washed herself at the spring of the camp. After bathing, she besought the Lord, the God of Israel, to direct her actions for the triumph of his people. Then she returned purified to the tent & remained there, until her food was brought to her toward evening.
Fontana and her family moved to Rome in 1603 at the invitation of Pope Clement VIII. She gained the patronage of the Buoncompagni, of which Pope Gregory XIII was a member. Lavinia thrived in Rome as she had in Bologna and Pope Paul V himself was among her sitters. She was the recipient of numerous honors, including a bronze portrait medallion cast in 1611 by sculptor and architect Felice Antonio Casoni.
While her youthful style was much like her father's, she gradually adopted the Carracciesque style, with strong quasi-Venetian coloring. She was elected into the Accademia di San Luca of Rome, and died in that city on August 11, 1614.
There are over 100 works that are documented, but only 32 signed and dated works are known today. There are 25 more that can be attributed to her, making hers the largest oeuvre for any female artist prior to 1700. Sofonisba Anguissola may have been an influence on her career. More
By 1629, he had his own independent studio. His first recorded work is a fresco of the Virgin, St John & Angels (c. 1628/9; San Marco, Florence) and a painting of Charity (Annunziata of Florence). In 1633, he painted six lunettes with scenes from the Life of the Blessed Bonaventura Bonaccorsi for the church of Santissima Annunziata in Pistoia, continuing a series begun in 1601 by Bernardino Poccetti. He painted a frieze depicting children’s Games and stories from Orlando Furioso (c. 1631) for Villa Corsini a Mezzomonte in Impruneta.
In 1659, Cecco was recommended by the Cardinal Leopoldo de' Medici for a position as a court painter to Anna, wife of the archduke of Ferdinand Karl of the Tyrol. He accepted and spent the last two years of his life in Innsbruck. One of his patrons was Filippo Baldinucci, but Bravo was not included in his biographies of Florentine artists. More
Pier Francesco Foschi (1502–1567) was an Italian painter active in Florence in a Mannerist style. Also called Pier Francesco di Jacopo Foschi or Toschi. He was the son of Jacopo Sandro Foschi, known for his Madonna and Child with the Infant Saint John. (Utah Museum of Fine Arts). He completed 3 altarpieces, commissioned in 1540–1545 for the church of Santo Spirito in Florence: an Immaculate Conception, Resurrection, and a Transfiguration. Foschi was also influenced by Il Bronzino.
Foschi is best noted for his portraits painted between 1530 and 1540. In his portraits he adhered to the Mannerist style, utilizing a slight Contrapposto in the sitter with their head turned from the body. This pose gave the depiction a spontaneity and sense of movement for the innovative Mannerists, but was eventually so formulaic that it lost its intention of originality. More
When all had departed & no one was left in the bedroom, Judith stood by Holofernes' bed & said within herself: “O Lord, God of all might, in this hour look graciously on my undertaking for the exaltation of Jerusalem; now is the time for aiding your heritage and for carrying out my design to shatter the enemies who have risen against us." Judith then went to the bedpost near the head of Holofernes, and taking his sword from it, drew close to the bed, grasped the hair of his head, and said, "Strengthen me this day, O God of Israel!" Then with all her might she struck him twice in the neck cutting off his head. She rolled his body off the bed and took the material of the canopy from its supports and hid general Holofernes in it.
Then said Judith afar off, to the watchmen at the gate, ‘Open, open now the gate: God, even our God, is with us, to shew his power yet in Jerusalem, and his forces against the enemy, as he hath even done this day.’”
The soldiers of the garrison are astonished as they open the gates to the city (which the artist has kindly labeled “Betulia”; and the final route of the Assyrian army is shown to the right. More
Paolo Schiavo, the pseudonym of Paolo di Stefano Badaloni (1397-1478) was a Florentine painter. Born in Rome, he enrolled in the Arte dei Medici e Speziali (the guild of Doctors and Apothecaries) in 1428. According to Vasari, he was a follower of Masolino. Schiavo dedicated a lot of his later works to Masolino. Among his dedications were a frescoes of the Virgin and Child Enthroned with Saints (1436), of the Crucifixion Adored by Nuns(1447-8) and of the Adoration of the Magi, the Annunciation and various saints. He made several other dedicatory works, all of which bear his signature and their corresponding dates. He died in Pisa. More
Judith receives high honors and adulation; even Jerusalem's high priest Joakim comes to pay his respects. Judith then retires to her home and lives the rest of her life as a widow, despite many offers of marriage. She dies at the age of 105.
Abraham Bloemaert (1564 - 1651)
Judith shows the people the head of the Holofernes. c. (1593)
Oil on Canvas
44 x 34 cm (17,3 x 13,4 inches)
Kunsthistorisches Museum, Wien
August von Heckel
Judith shows her people the head of the Holofernes, c. 1857
36.5 x 46.5 cm
Oil on canvas
Judith Displaying the Head of Holofernes, c. 1703-1704
Oil on canvas
102.9 x 77.5 cm
St Louis Art Museum, St Louis, Missouri, USA
Later many of his works in Brussels, Antwerp, Tongerlo Abbey, and elsewhere were destroyed in the Reformation and French Revolution, leaving the three royal monuments at the then newly built Royal Monastery of Brou, Bourg-en-Bresse, as his outstanding surviving large works. A number of small works, including portrait busts in wood, and small statuettes in various materials have survived. The documented tombs and the signed alabaster statuette of Judith (illustrated above) are the main secure works for defining his style. More