Saturday, January 23, 2016

30 Works, RELIGIOUS ART - Paintings from the Bible, with footnotes, 7

'La Colosal (Immaculate Conception)'. Seville Museum of Fine Arts © Ministerio de Cultura
Bartolomé Esteban Murillo (1617  – 1682)
La Colosal (Immaculate Conception), c. 1652
436 x 297 cm
Oil on Canvas
Seville Museum of Fine Arts

In this painting Murillo establishes a new iconographic prototype with representations of great dynamic force and movement. The Immaculate Conception, also known as "La Colosal", is an early work by Murillo painted around 1650, which was in the convent of San Francisco in Seville. The scene shown here is monumental in nature and full of movement, as can be seen in the swirling cloth, the white tunic and blue mantle, and the accompaniment of the angels playing around the image of the Virgin. 

The style of the early works of Murillo continues the models of Zurbarán, using strict Tenebrist naturalism and the cloud-filled skies suffused with golden light. More

Bartolomé Esteban Murillo (1617  – 1682)  was a Spanish Baroque painter. Although he is best known for his religious works, Murillo also produced a considerable number of paintings of contemporary women and children. His lively, realist portraits of flower girls, street urchins, and beggars constitute an extensive and appealing record of the everyday life of his times. More

The Finding of Moses
Lawrence Alma-Tadema (1836–1912)
The finding of Moses, c. 1904
oil on canvas
137.5 × 213.4 cm (54.1 × 84 in)

The Finding of Moses is a 1904 painting by the Anglo-Dutch artist Sir Lawrence Alma-Tadema. It was one his last major works before his death in 1912, but quickly fell out of favour; according to rumour, it was sold in the 1960s for its frame. After appreciation of Victorian painting was renewed towards the end of the 20h century, it was described in an auction catalogue in 1995 as "the undisputed masterpiece of [Alma-Tadema's] last decade, as well as a late (perhaps the final?) flowering of the nineteenth-century's love-affair with Egypt". It was sold at auction in 2010 for nearly US$36 million.

The painting was commissioned by Sir John Aird, 1st Baronet for 5,000 guineas, plus expenses. Aird's civil engineering business, John Aird & Co., was responsible for building the first Aswan Dam. Aird invited Alma-Tadema to visit Egypt for the opening of the dam in December 1902, and commissioned him to paint a suitable subject to add to Aird's large collection of academic paintings by the likes of Frederic Leighton, Edward Poynter, and John William Waterhouse, including Alma-Tadema's 1888 work The Roses of Heliogabalus. The commission allowed Alma-Tadema to revisit Egyptian themes from his works in the 1860s.

The work is a Biblical scene based on chapter 2, verse 6 of the Book of Exodus, in which Pharaoh's daughter comes to wash in the River Nile, and finds the infant Moses abandoned in an ark in the reeds. The painting depicts the scene after the infant has been discovered, showing a procession travelling back to the daughter's abode in Memphis, the capital of the Old Kingdom of Egypt. More

Sir Lawrence Alma-Tadema,  (born January 8, 1836, Dronrijp, Netherlands—died June 25, 1912, Wiesbaden, Germany), Dutch-born painter of scenes from everyday life in the ancient world whose work was immensely popular in its time.

Alma-Tadema, the son of a Dutch notary, studied art at the Antwerp Academy (1852–58) under the Belgian historical painter Hendrik Leys, assisting the painter in 1859 with frescoes for the Stadhuis (town hall) in Antwerp. During a visit to Italy in 1863, Alma-Tadema became interested in Greek and Roman antiquity and Egyptian archaeology, and afterward he depicted imagery almost exclusively from those sources. Moving to England, he became a naturalized British subject in 1873 and was elected a member of the Royal Academy in 1879. He was knighted in 1899.

Alma-Tadema excelled at the accurate re-creation of ancient architecture and costumes and the precise depiction of textures of marble, bronze, and silk. His expert rendering of settings provides a backdrop for anecdotal scenes set in the ancient world. Alma-Tadema’s wife, Laura Epps, was also a painter. More

Follower of Frans Francken the Younger | lot | Sotheby's:
Follower of Frans Francken the Younger
oil on oak panel
43 by 49.3 cm.; 16 7/8  by 19 3/8  in.

Feast in the House of Simon the Pharisee, also known as Christ in the Home of Simon the Pharisee. The painting depicts an incident from Luke 7 where Jesus visits Simon the Pharisee, and has his feet anointed by a "sinful woman". Jesus proceeds to tell the Parable of the Two Debtors.

Frans Francken the Younger, see below

FRENCH MASTER, 17th/18th century 
Moses Banishes the Shepherds from the Fountain and Waters the Sheep of Jethro's Daughters. 
Oil on canvas. Laid down on wood. 
75 x 102 cm.

The Bible, Exodus, Chapters:
.16 ¶ Now the priest of Midian had seven daughters: and they came and drew water, and filled the troughs to water their father's flock. 
 17  And the shepherds came and drove them away: but Moses stood up and helped them, and watered their flock. 
.18  And when they came to Reuel their father, he said, How is it that ye are come so soon to day? 
 19  And they said, An Egyptian delivered us out of the hand of the shepherds, and also drew water enough for us, and watered the flock. 
 20  And he said unto his daughters, And where is he? why is it that ye have left the man? call him, that he may eat bread.

 FRANCKEN, FRANS II, Antwerp 1581 - 1642 - workshop 
Solomon's Idolatry. 
Oil on wood. 57,5 x 84,5cm.

This is a depiction of King Solomon, who prays to a gold idol on a pedestal on his knees and swinging a censer. He is surrounded by women representing his second vice which is the polygamy. In the bible this vice is mentioned on the very spot with his idolatry. (1 Kings 11, 1-13) 

The present painting goes back to a painting by Franks Francken II (see below). depicting the same subject in the Musée of Beaux-Arts in Clermont-Ferrand dated 1630-1635. 

Frans Francken the Younger (Antwerp, 1581 – Antwerp, 6 May 1642) was a Flemish painter and the best-known member of the large Francken family of artists. He played an important role in the development of Flemish art in the first half of the 17th century through his innovations in genre painting and introduction of new subject matter. More

Frans Francken II (Flemish Baroque Era Painter, 1581-1642)
The Idolatry of Solomon, c. 1622
Oil on panel
77 x 109 cm (30 3/8 x 43 in.)
The Getty Museum, Los Angeles, CA, USA

SOGLIANI, GIOVANNI ANTONIO - Florence 1492 - 1544
Madonna and the Child and John the Baptist as a boy.
Oil on wood. 
74,5 x 56cm.

Giovanni Antonio Sogliani (1492–1544) was an Italian painter of the Renaissance, active mainly in Florence. Giovanni had apprenticed with Lorenzo di Credi for two decades. He painted a Martyrdom of St Acasio for the Church of San Lorenzo in Florence. Vasari claims that Sogliani was influenced by Fra Bartolomeo in this painting. He painted a St Martin for the Orsanmichele. He painted an altarpiece of St Brigitta now in the Museo di San Marco. He also painted a number of works for the Cathedral of Pisa, a commission that had previously been requested from Perino del Vaga. This included three canvases for the "Sacrifice of Abel, "Sacrifice of Cain, and Sacrifice of Noah completed by 15 May 1533. On 23 March 1536, he was commissioned an altarpiece of the Virgin with child and Saints.

He painted an Allegory of the Immaculate Conception now in the Accademia di Belli Arti in Florence. Among his pupils are Sigismondo Foschi and Zanobi di Poggino. More

SEGHERS, GERARD, Antwerp 1591 - 1651 - circle 
Mary and the Child. 
Oil on canvas
125 x 92,5cm

Gerard Seghers (Antwerp, 1591 – Antwerp, 18 March 1651) was a Flemish painter, art collector and art dealer. As a painter of history and genre paintings, he was in his youth one of the leading representatives of the Flemish Caravaggisti movement. More

1st half of the 19th century 
Young Female Vintner in front of a Broad Campagna Landscape. 
Oil on canvas
133 x 98cm.

STEENWYCK, HENDRICK VAN II. , 1580 - 1649 Leyden 
Salome with the Head of John the Baptist. 
Oil on wood. 
41 x 62cm. 
Signed lower right in the stone bank by the window: H. V. Steenwyk.

Hendrik van Steenwijck II (c.1580–1649) was a Baroque painter mostly of architectural interiors and biblical scenes and still lifes.

Van Steenwijck was born in Antwerp. His father, the Dutch painter Hendrik van Steenwijck I, one of the originators of the interiors genre, moved the family to Frankfurt am Main in 1585, where he trained his son. At his father's death in 1603, Van Steenwijck the Younger took over the studio in Frankfurt, but from 1604 until 1615 he was primarily active in Antwerp, where he collaborated with early Flemish Baroque painters such as Frans Francken I and Jan Brueghel the Elder. Van Steenwijck is best known for the numerous imaginary interiors that were based on the Cathedral of Our Lady, Antwerp. These had an immediate influence on paintings by Pieter Neeffs I. After settling in London by 1615, he painted backgrounds for Anthony van Dyck and Daniel Mytens the Elder. Van Steenwijck moved to The Hague around 1638, where he was a painter at the court, and to Leiden around 1642. His wife, Susanna van Steenwijk was also an architectural painter. Van Steenwijck died in Leiden or The Hague. More

FLORIS, FRANS, Antwerp 1516 - 1570 
St. Jerome
Oil on wood. 39 x 28,5cm.

Saint Jerome (c.  347 – 30 September 420) was a Catholic priest, confessor, theologian and historian, who also became a Doctor of the Church. He was born at Stridon, in northeastern Italy. He is best known for his translation of most of the Bible into Latin, and his commentaries on the Gospels. His list of writings is extensive. The protégé of Pope Damasus I, who died in December of 384, Jerome was known for his teachings on Christian moral life, especially to those living in cosmopolitan centers such as Rome. In many cases, he focused his attention to the lives of women and identified how a woman devoted to Jesus Christ should live her life. This focus stemmed from his close patron relationships with several prominent female ascetics who were members of affluent senatorial families.

He is recognised as a saint by the Roman Catholic Church, the Eastern Orthodox Church, the Lutheran Church, and the Church of England (Anglican Communion). His feast day is 30 September. More

Frans Floris, Frans Floris the Elder or Frans Floris de Vriendt (1517 – 1 October 1570) was a Flemish painter mainly known for his historical paintings and portraits. He was a leading figure in the movement in Northern Renaissance painting referred to as Romanism. The Romanists had typically travelled to Italy to study the works of leading Italian High Renaissance artists such as Michelangelo, Raphael and their followers. Their art assimilated these Italian influences into the Northern painting tradition More

 PIETERS, PIETER, 1540 Antwerp - 1603 Amsterdam - circle 
Allegoric Female from Matthew, chapter 10: 16
"Therefore be as shrewd as snakes and as innocent as doves"
Oil on oak
103 x 76,5cm

LISAERT, PIETER, Antwerp 1595 - 1629 - attributed 
Jephta Sees His Daughter. 
Oil on wood
 49 x 64cm

Old Testament, Judges 11: 29 Now the Spirit of the LORD came upon Jephthah, so that he passed through Gilead and Manasseh; then he passed through Mizpah of Gilead, and from Mizpah of Gilead he went on to the sons of Ammon. 30 Jephthah made a vow to the LORD and said, "If You will indeed give the sons of Ammon into my hand, 31 then it shall be that whatever comes out of the doors of my house to meet me when I return in peace from the sons of Ammon, it shall be the LORD'S, and I will offer it up as a burnt offering."…

Pieter Lisaert ( Antwerp , 1574-1630) was a Flemish painter, specializing in historical, religious and allegorical painting matter.

A member of a family of artists and art dealers, his paintings, which are observed archaic features a mannerism, reveals influences of Frans Francken the Elder .

The little known Pieter Lisaert works. He hrepeated several times the parable of the foolish virgins and wise virgins ( Matthew 25: 1-13 ) (see below). More

File:Pieter Lisaert IV - De gelijkenis van de wijze en dwaze maagden.jpg
Pieter Lisaert III (1574 - circa 1630)
The Parable of the Wise and Foolish Virgins
Medium oil on panel
73.4 × 104.8 cm (28.9 × 41.3 in)

The Parable of the Ten Virgins, also known as the Parable of the Wise and Foolish Virgins, is one of the well known parables of Jesus. It appears in two versions one in the Canonical gospels of the New Testament and one in the Epistula Apostolorum. According to the Gospel of Matthew 25:1-13, the five virgins who are prepared for the bridegroom's arrival are rewarded, while the five who are not prepared are disowned. The parable has a clear eschatological theme: be prepared for the Day of Judgment. It was one of the most popular parables in the Middle Ages, with enormous influence on Gothic art, sculpture and the architecture of German and French cathedrals. More

By Giovanni Battista Tiepolo, c.1735-9. National Gallery, London:
Giovanni Battista Tiepolo (1696–1770
Pope St Clement Adoring the Trinity, c. 1737 and 1738
Oil on canvas
Height: 488 cm (192.1 in). Width: 256 cm (100.8 in).
Alte Pinakothek, München, Germany

The painting shows Pope Clement I at prayer, in an ecclesiastical architectural setting which cannot be identified more closely, before a vision of the Holy Trinity. The lively facial expressions suggest a conversation between Clement and God the Father, which is further dramatized by the strong chiaroscuro contrasts. In an allusion to the particular connection between the donor and his famous patron saint, Tiepolo lends the portrait of the Pope a private character: the tiara and crosier, symbols of his power, have been laid aside and placed in the keeping of a putto. More

Pope Clement I (died 99), also known as Saint Clement of Rome, is listed Bishop of Rome, holding office from 88 to his death in 99. He is considered to be the first Apostolic Father of the Church.

Clement was consecrated by Saint Peter, and he is known to have been a leading member of the church in Rome in the late 1st century. Early church lists place him as the second or third bishop of Rome after Saint Peter.

Clement asserted the authority of the presbyters as rulers of the church on the ground that the Apostles had appointed such. In the legendary Clementine Literature, Clement is the intermediary through whom the apostles teach the church. According to tradition, Clement was imprisoned under the Emperor Trajan; during this time he is recorded to have led a ministry among fellow prisoners. Thereafter he was executed by being tied to an anchor and thrown into the sea.

Clement is recognized as a saint in many Christian churches and is considered a patron saint of mariners. More

Giovanni Battista Tiepolo (March 5, 1696 – March 27, 1770), also known as Gianbattista or Giambattista Tiepolo, was an Italian painter and printmaker from the Republic of Venice. He was prolific, and worked not only in Italy, but also in Germany and Spain.

Giovan Battista Tiepolo, together with Giambattista Pittoni, Canaletto, Giovan Battista Piazzetta, Giuseppe Maria Crespi and Francesco Guardi forms the traditional great Old Masters of that period.

Successful from the beginning of his career, he has been described by Michael Levey as "the greatest decorative painter of eighteenth-century Europe, as well as its most able craftsman. More

Coming Home
Stephen Boyling
Coming Home

Francesco di Gentile da Fabriano (1460-1500)
Virgin and Child with a Pomegranate, c. 1497
Oil on Canvas
18.8 x 25.2" (47.8 x 64.1 cm)
Philadelphia Museum of Art, USA

Gentile da Fabriano, (born c. 1370, Fabriano, Papal States [Italy]—died 1427, Rome), foremost painter of central Italy at the beginning of the 15th century, whose few surviving works are among the finest examples of the International Gothic style.

An early signed work by Gentile has stylistic affinities with Lombard painting and suggests that he was trained in the Lombard school. In 1409 Gentile was commissioned to decorate the Doges’ Palace in Venice with historical frescoes, which were later completed by Il Pisanello. His final important cycle of frescoes was begun in Rome in the Church of St. John Lateran shortly before his death. As with the frescoes in Venice, they were completed by Il Pisanello (now destroyed).

His surviving masterpiece, the Adoration of the Magi, c. 1423 (see below) for the Church of Santa Trinità, in Florence. Its graceful figures are clothed in velvets and rich brocades, and the Magi are attended by Oriental retainers, who look after such exotic animals as lions and camels. Its delicate linearity and vibrant colours enhance the effect of rich exoticism. Gentile also produced a number of Madonnas, such as the altarpiece known as the Quaratesi Polyptych c. 1425, which show the Mother and Child, regally clad, sitting on the ground in a garden. More

Gentile da Fabriano Adoration.jpg
Gentile da Fabriano (1370–1427)
The Adoration of the Magi, c.1423
Medium tempera on panel
Height: 300 cm (118.1 in). Width: 282 cm (111 in).
Uffizi Gallery,  Firenze, Italy

Botticelli, madonna della melagrana 01.jpg
Sandro Botticelli (1445–1510)
Madonna of the Pomegranate (Madonna della Melagrana), circa 1487
Tempera on panel
diameter 143,5 cm
Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence

The Madonna of the Pomegranate (Madonna della Melagrana) is a painting by the Italian Renaissance master Sandro Botticelli, circa 1487. It is housed in the Uffizi Gallery of Florence, Italy.

Several copies of the work exist, currently held at the Berlin State Museums, the Wernher Collection in London and the Aynard Collection at Lyon. More

The elements of this image contain many symbolic items. Each figure wears a sad expression as if their mind is somewhere else thinking of Christ’s death. The seed of the pomegranate the infant is holding signifies that Christ will receive resurrection through rebirth just as the seed will cause the birth of a new plant. The angel in front is holding lilies and roses which are both symbols of the Virgin. That same angel is wearing sashes with the words AVE GRAZIA PLENA which mean “Hail [Mary] full of grace.” More

Alessandro di Mariano di Vanni Filipepi, known as Sandro Botticelli (Italian: [ˈsandro bottiˈtʃɛlli]; c. 1445[1] – May 17, 1510), was an Italian painter of the Early Renaissance. He belonged to the Florentine School under the patronage of Lorenzo de' Medici, a movement that Giorgio Vasari would characterize less than a hundred years later in his Vita of Botticelli as a "golden age". Botticelli's posthumous reputation suffered until the late 19th century; since then, his work has been seen to represent the linear grace of Early Renaissance painting.

Among Botticelli's best-known works are The Birth of Venus and Primavera. More

Lorenzo di Credi, Florentine, c. 1457/1459 - 1536
Madonna and Child with a Pomegranate, c. 1475/1480
oil on poplar panel
16.5 x 13.4 cm (6 1/2 x 5 1/4 in.)
National Gallery of Art, Washington, United States

Lorenzo di Credi (c. 1459 – January 12, 1537) was an Italian Renaissance painter and sculptor. He first influenced Leonardo da Vinci and then was greatly influenced by him. Born in Florence, he started to work in Andrea del Verrocchio's workshop. After the death of his master, he inherited the direction of the workshop. For Pistoia Cathedral he completed the painting of the Madonna Enthroned between John the Baptist and St. Donatus which had been partially painted by his master, Verrocchio, but was left unfinished when Verrocchio went to Venice.

Lorenzo's mature works are influenced by Fra Bartolomeo, Perugino and the young Raphael.

In recent times, one of di Credi's works gained attention when scholars pointed out a resemblance between the face of Mona Lisa by Leonardo da Vinci and the face of Caterina Sforza in a portrait by him. Caterina Sforza was the Lady of Forlì and Imola in Romagna, later prisoner of Cesare Borgia. The portrait, known also as La dama dei gelsomini, is now in the Pinacoteca of Forlì. More

Italian (Florentine) School
Madonna and Child with a Pomegranate, c.1525
Oil on panel
102 x 83 cm
National Trust, Manvers, Rotherham, UK

The Virgin and Child with a Pomegranate
probably about 1480-1500, Workshop of Sandro Botticelli
probably about 1480-1500
Tempera on wood
Dimensions67.9 x 52.7 cm

The Virgin and Child with two Angels or The Virgin with a Pomegranate, 1426
Guido di Pietro, known as Fra Angelico (Mugello, 1390 – Rome, 1455)
Tempera on panel, 83 x 59 cm
Museo Nacional del Prado. Acquired in 2016 (with the collaboration of the Fundación Amigos del Museo del Prado)

The Virgin of the Pomegranate takes its name from the pomegranate held by the Virgin and which attracts the attention of the Christ Child, who touches it. In this context the fruit has a double meaning: in the Virgin’s hands it refers to her chastity, while by touching it the Christ Child prefigures his own death and resurrection. This iconography was widely used in 15th-century Florence where it interested artists such as Sandro Botticelli and Leonardo da Vinci.

The Virgin of the Pomegranate is a remarkable work painted at one of the key moments in the history of European art, in early 15th-century Florence, by one of its most important artists: Guido di Pietro (Mugello, 1390 – Rome, 1455), better known as the Beato Angelico or Fra Angelico. This panel is also one of the very few masterpieces of this period to remain in private hands, given that since Quattrocento Italian painting first began to attract the attention of critics and art lovers in the early 19th century, it became a coveted field for museums and collectors. In the present day the most important works by Masaccio, Masolino and Fra Angelico are housed in the leading European and American museums. This fact, in addition to the painting’s fine state of conservation, makes The Virgin of the Pomegranate exceptionally important.

The Virgin of the Pomegranate is one of a series of Virgin and Child compositions that Fra Angelico painted in the 1420s and which reveal his increasing mastery of anatomy, light and space. This group also includes The Virgin of Humility in the Museo Thyssen. More

Fra Angelico (c. 1395 – February 18, 1455) see below

The Annunciation, 1425 – 1426
Guido di Pietro, known as Fra Angelico (Mugello, 1390 – Rome, 1455)
Tempera on panel, 194 x 194 cm
Museo Nacional del Prado

Fra Angelico (c. 1395 – February 18, 1455) see below

Guido di Pietro, known as Fra Angelico (Mugello, 1390 – Rome, 1455)
The Funeral of Saint Anthony Abbot, c.1426-1430
Tempera on poplar wood, 29.2 x 19.5 cm
(Donation of Carlos Fitz-Stuart y Martínez de Irujo, 19th Duke of Alba de Tormes, to the Museo del Prado)

Saint Anthony, c. 251–356, was a Christian monk from Egypt, revered since his death as a saint. He is distinguished from other saints named Anthony by various epithets: Anthony the Great, Anthony of Egypt, Anthony the Abbot, Anthony of the Desert, Anthony the Anchorite, and Anthony of Thebes. For his importance among the Desert Fathers and to all later monasticism, he is also known as the Father of All Monks. His feast day is celebrated on January 17 among the Orthodox and Catholic churches and on Tobi 22 in the Egyptian calendar used by the Coptic Church.

The biography of Anthony's life by Athanasius of Alexandria helped to spread the concept of monasticism, particularly in Western Europe via its Latin translations. He is often erroneously considered the first monk, but as his biography and other sources make clear, there were many ascetics before him. Anthony was, however, the first known ascetic going into the wilderness (about ad 270), a geographical move that seems to have contributed to his renown. Accounts of Anthony enduring supernatural temptation during his sojourn in the Eastern Desert of Egypt inspired the often-repeated subject of the temptation of St. Anthony in Western art and literature.

Anthony is appealed to against infectious diseases, particularly skin diseases. In the past, many such afflictions, including ergotism, erysipelas, and shingles, were historically referred to as St. Anthony's fire. More

Fra Angelico (c. 1395 – February 18, 1455) was an Early Italian Renaissance painter described by Vasari in his Lives of the Artists as having "a rare and perfect talent".

He was known to contemporaries as Fra Giovanni da Fiesole (Brother John of Fiesole, the "Angelic friar").

In 1982 Pope John Paul II proclaimed his beatification, in recognition of the holiness of his life, thereby making the title of "Blessed" official. Fiesole is sometimes misinterpreted as being part of his formal name, but it was merely the name of the town where he took his vows as a Dominican friar, and was used by contemporaries to separate him from other Fra Giovannis. He is listed in the Roman Martyrology as Beatus Ioannes Faesulanus, cognomento Angelicus—"Blessed Giovanni of Fiesole, known as 'the Angelic' ".

Vasari wrote of Fra Angelico that "it is impossible to bestow too much praise on this holy father, who was so humble and modest in all that he did and said and whose pictures were painted with such facility and piety." More

Battista Dossi FERRARA (?) 1490/5 - 1548 FERRARA THE FLIGHT INTO EGYPT oil on poplar panel 66.1 by 87.3 cm.; 26 by 34 3/8  in.:
Battista Dossi, FERRARA 1490/5 - 1548 FERRARA
oil on poplar panel
66.1 by 87.3 cm.; 26 by 34 3/8  in.

The composition is known in three versions. One was in the Samuel H. Kress Foundation, and was given as a gift to the Lowe Art Museum at the University of Miami, Florida.1 Marginally smaller, and also on panel, the Kress painting is comparable to the present work down to the smallest details. The third version was formerly in the collection of Fritz von Harck (1855-1917), at Schloß Seußlitz, Dresden.2 The Harck painting differs from the other two in the construction of the right-hand side of the composition, where it depicts a small weir under the bridge before the Holy Family, and omits the posts delineating the edge of the path. The distance is also different, the Harck version shows a distant island, with a walled city at its shores, then another island in the middle distance upon which is another group of buildings, including a rotunda and a square tower, and a third spit of land with small figures and foliage only. The present picture, and the Kress version, depict a distant landscape sweeping from green fields, to coastal cities, to high rocky mountains and distant rolling hills. More

The flight into Egypt is a biblical event described in the Gospel of Matthew (Matthew 2:13-23), in which Joseph fled to Egypt with st. Mary and infant son Jesus after a visit by Magi because they learn that King Herod intends to kill the infants of that area. The episode is frequently shown in art, as the final episode of the Nativity of Jesus in art, and was a common component in cycles of the Life of the Virgin as well as the Life of Christ. More

Battista Dossi (ca. 1490–1548), also known as Battista de Luteri, was an Italian painter who belonged to the Ferrara School of Painting. He spent nearly his entire career in service of the Court of Ferrara, where he worked with his older brother Dosso Dossi (c. 1489-1542). It is believed that Battista worked in the Rome studio of Raphael from 1517 to 1520. Battista’s students include Camillo Filippi (c. 1500-1574). More

Antwerp 1629 - 1676 
The Mystic Wedding of Saint Catherine
Oil on canvas
108 x 100cm
Signed lower right: J.v.d. Duyts f. 

The Mystical Marriage of Saint Catherine (or "Mystic") covers two different subjects in Christian art arising from visions received by either Saint Catherine of Alexandria or Saint Catherine of Siena (1347–1380), in which these virgin saints went through a mystical marriage wedding ceremony with Christ, in the presence of the Virgin Mary, consecrating themselves and their virginity to him.

The Catholic Encyclopaedia notes that such a wedding ceremony "is but the accompaniment and symbol of a purely spiritual grace", and that "as a wife should share in the life of her husband, and as Christ suffered for the redemption of mankind, the mystical spouse enters into a more intimate participation in His sufferings." Catherine of Alexandria was martyred, while Catherine of Siena received the stigmata. More

Jan De Duyts was a Dutch visual artist who was born in 1629. The artist died in 1676.

1734 Treia (Marche) - 1792 Treia (Marche) - attributed 
Erminia and Vafrin find the Wounded Tancredi. 
Oil on canvas
121 x 158cm

This painting illustrates an episode taken from the epic poem "Jerusalem Delivered" by Torquato Tasso (Canto 19, line 809-912). The subject of this epic poem is the conquest of Jerusalem by the Christians. The Christian warrior, Tancredi, is heavily wounded by the cruel Saracen, Argante, and is lying in front of Jerusalem's walls. Argante, who is killed in action, can be seen in the background. Tancredi is found by his squire, Vafrin, who is dressed up like a Saracen, and princess Erminia, who is secretly in love with Tancredi. Erminia bents down over Tancredi and is deeply upset. 

Jerusalem Delivered  is an epic poem by the Italian poet Torquato Tasso first published in 1581, which tells a largely mythified version of the First Crusade in which Christian knights, led by Godfrey of Bouillon, battle Muslims in order to take Jerusalem. One of the most characteristic literary devices in Tasso's poem is the emotional conundrum endured by characters torn between their heart and their duty; the depiction of love at odds with martial valour or honor is a central source of lyrical passion in the poem.

Tasso's choice of subject matter, an actual historic conflict between Christians and Muslims (albeit with fantastical elements added), had a historical grounding, and created compositional implications  that are lacking in other Renaissance epics. Like other works of the period which portray conflicts between Christians and Muslims, this subject matter had a topical resonance to readers of the period, as the Ottoman Empire was advancing through Eastern Europe.

The poem, which in detail bears almost no resemblance to the actual history or cultural setting of the Crusades, tells of the initial disunity and setbacks of the Christians and their ultimate success in taking Jerusalem in 1099. Much of the poem is concerned with romantic sub-plots involving entirely fictional characters, except for Tancredi. The three main female characters begin as Muslims, have romantic entanglements with Christian knights, and are eventually converted to Christianity. They are all women of action: two of them fight in battles, and the third is a sorceress. There are many magical elements, and the Saracen side often act as though they were classical pagans. The most famous episodes, and those most often dramatised and painted, includes the Princess Erminia (or "Hermine") of Antioch,

Princess Erminia (or "Hermine") of Antioch, also falls in love with Tancredi and betrays her people to help him, but she grows jealous when she learns that Tancredi loves Clorinda. One night she steals Clorinda's armor and leaves the city, in an attempt to find Tancredi, but she is attacked by Christian soldiers (who mistake her for Clorinda) and she flees into the forest, where she is cared for by a family of shepherds.

Later in the poem we find her again in the company of Armida's ladies, but Erminia abandons her Muslim people and goes over to the Christian side. When Tancredi is dangerously wounded in combat, she heals him, cutting off her hair to bind his wounds. More

MARR, CARL VON, 1858 Milwaukee - 1936 Munich 
The Walk of Children to Bethlehem. 
Oil on cardboard
63 x 63cm
Signed lower right: Carl / Marr

Carl von Marr (February 14, 1858 – July 10, 1936) was an American-born German painter. He was born at Milwaukee, Wisconsin. He was a pupil of Henry Vianden in Milwaukee, of Martin Schauß in Weimar, of Karl Gussow in Berlin, and subsequently of Otto Seitz at the Academy of Fine Arts Munich.

Marr became a professor at the Academy of Fine Arts in Munich in 1893, and in 1895 a member of the Berlin Academy of Arts. In 1917, Marr was appointed a privy councilor to the Bavarian government. He was forced to flee to Switzerland during the Bavarian Council Republic, which put a price on his head because of this political connection. In 1919, Marr became the director of the Royal Academy in Munich, where he continued to work until his retirement in 1923. Marr died on 10 July 1936 and is buried at the Solln Cemetery in Munich. More

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