Wednesday, September 28, 2016

33 Carvings & Sculpture from the Bible, European, With Footnotes 4

Attributed to Michel Erhart, (c. 1440 to 1445 – after 1522, Ulm) 
Virgin of Mercy,c. 1480
Limewood, original colours with some overpainting

Virgin of Mercy, reportedly from the high altar altarpiece of the Church of our Lady in Ravensburg, Upper Swabia, c. 1480.

The Virgin of Mercy is a subject in Christian Art, showing a group of people sheltering for protection under the outspread cloak, or pallium, of the Virgin Mary. It was especially popular in Italy from the 13th to 16th centuries, often as a specialised form of votive portrait, and is also found in other countries and later art, especially Catalonia and Latin America. In Italian it is known as the Madonna della Misericordia (Madonna of Mercy). More

Michel Erhart (c. 1440 to 1445 – after 1522, Ulm) was a German late Gothic sculptor who lived and worked in Ulm. He spent his journeyman years in various regions including Konstanz and the Netherlands before finally settling in Ulm around 1469, where works by him are extant from around 1469–1522. He worked in the workshop of Jörg Syrlin the Elder, as did his sons Gregor Erhart and Bernhard Erhart. After 1474 he apparently had his own workshop with numerous apprentices. More

A late Gothic sculpture of a holy bishop

Southern German, end of 15th cent. Limewood, hollowed out, former polychromy, partially renewed, the inkarnat probably original. A full-figure depiction of a standing holy bishop dressed in an Episcopal robe, with miter and crozier, in the left hand his attribute: a book. The facial features are finely and characteristically modelled, also the border of his cape shows traces of very well carved.  H. 99 cm.

19th C. European Painted Wood / Cloth Madonna

Europe, France or Italy, ca. 19th century CE. A pretty wooden statuette with cloth robes and brightly painted details. It depicts an older Madonna, holding a book, wearing a beautiful blue dress, white head covering, and gold wrap. One hand is raised, as if in greeting. Her eyes are blue glass and she stands on an octagonal green base. A nice example of some of the finely-produced religious art that would have been common in middle class 19th century European homes, blending Catholic worship of the Virgin Mary with the high quality level of craftsmanship for many consumer items from that time. Size: 2.5" W x 5" H (6.4 cm x 12.7 cm) 

17th C. Spanish Wood Depiction of Crucified Christ

Europe, Spain, ca. 17th century CE. Hand carved and painted depiction of a crucified Christ donning a plaited crown of thorns and a loin cloth that still shows some gilding and pigment, finely rendered with realistic emaciation, long majestic proportions, and a peaceful visage that emphasizes his humanity. Christ's tranquil countenance appears to serenely signify the injustice of the crucifixion, despite the blood flowing from his wounds and the wooden nail driven through his feet. A superb example of Baroque religious sculpture, masterfully carved with pigment remaining on the surface, mounted upon an attractive chocolate brown velvety fabric matt lined with an embroidered foliate border. Size: figure measures 11" H (27.9 cm); matt measures 7" W x 14.25" H (17.8 cm x 36.2 cm)

France, c.1400
H. 17.5 cm

Full-figure representation of Our Lady with wavy hair, dressed in a richly pleated garment. She stands in prayer with folded hands, standing on a crescent moon. 

The depiction of the Madonna on the crescent is based on the vision of John the Evangelist in chapter 12 of Revelation, the final book of the New Testament (here, the King James version):

1 And there appeared a great wonder in heaven; a woman clothed with the sun, and the moon under her feet, and upon her head a crown of twelve stars:
2 And she being with child cried, travailing in birth, and pained to be delivered.
3 And there appeared another wonder in heaven; and behold a great red dragon, having seven heads and ten horns, and seven crowns upon his heads.
4 And his tail drew the third part of the stars of heaven, and did cast them to the earth: and the dragon stood before the woman which was ready to be delivered, for to devour her child as soon as it was born.
5 And she brought forth a man child, who was to rule all nations with a rod of iron: and her child was caught up unto God, and to his throne. More

German, Schwaben, c. 1500 / 1510
H. 40 cm, W. 47 cm.

Christ with his disciples on the night before his crucifixion in the Garden of Gethsemane; before an architectural background. With apostles Peter, James and John. On the right is an angel, kneeling before Christ.

France, Burgundy, c. 14th century
H. 70.5 cm

Spain or France, c. 16th to 17th century
H. 93 cm. 

According to legend, the Bishop of Toulouse, Saturnius, was dragged by a bull. As a sign of his martyrdom beside the figure, a bull-like figure can be seen.

Rheinland, c. 1460/70
H. 115 cm 

The standing Madonna holds in her right arm the seated Christ Child. In her left hand she holds, as a symbol of blessing, and mothering, grapes. Iconographically this type of grape Madonna comes from a Roman clay sculpture from the 2nd century showing a grape-bearing fertility goddesses. In Christian iconography, there are many varieties of the 'Grape Madonna.' 'After the early Christian perception that Maria was deemed vine from Jesus Christ as divine, the grape emerged.' 

Rheinland, c. 1460/70

The variety in such statues is as great as in other Madonna images; one finds Madonnas holding grapes (in reference to the Song of Songs 1:14, translated as "My lover is to me a cluster of henna blossoms" in the  New International Version (NIV), an English translation of the Protestant Bible.

Bavaria, early 20th century
Virgin with child, in the late Baroque style of the first half of the 18th century
Holding a bunch of grapes in the left hand, resting upon a globe adorned with two crests.
Sculpture in white majolica
Dimensions: Height: 82 cm/32.2 inches

Attributed to Fausto Melotti (1901-1986)
Plaster bas-relief
45x28 cm.

Spain, circa 1700
Wood, polychrome, gilded
H. 20 cm. 

Full-length depiction of Saint Roch in Pilgerkledung, pointing to a plague spot on his left leg.

Saint Roch or Rocco , c. 1348 – 15/16 August 1376/79, was a Catholic saint, a confessor whose death is commemorated on 16 August; he is specially invoked against the plague. He is a patron saint of dogs and falsely accused people, among other things.

He was born at Montpellier, at that time "upon the border of France", the son of the noble governor of that city. Even his birth was accounted a miracle, for his noble mother had been barren until she prayed to the Virgin Mary. Miraculously marked from birth with a red cross on his breast that grew as he did, he early began to manifest strict asceticism and great devoutness.

Executed head of Saint Roch
Spain, 17th century
Wood, polychrome, gilded
H. 25 cm. About a square base

On the death of his parents in his twentieth year he distributed all his worldly goods among the poor like Francis of Assisi—though his father on his deathbed had ordained him governor of Montpellier—and set out as a mendicant pilgrim for Rome. Coming into Italy during an epidemic of plague, he was very diligent in tending the sick in the public hospitals, and is said to have effected many miraculous cures by prayer and the sign of the cross and the touch of his hand. At Rome he preserved the "cardinal of Angleria in Lombardy" by making the mark of the cross on his forehead, which miraculously remained. Ministering at Piacenza he himself finally fell ill. He was expelled from the town; and withdrew into the forest, where he made himself a hut of boughs and leaves, which was miraculously supplied with water by a spring that arose in the place; he would have perished had not a dog belonging to a nobleman named Gothard Palastrelli supplied him with bread and licked his wounds, healing them. Count Gothard, following his hunting dog that carried the bread, discovered Saint Roch and became his acolyte.

Northern Italy, 17th century
Polychrome gilded wood
Height: 87 cm /34.2 inches

A sculpture with a powerful anatomical rendering and a strong expressivity in the face. To be attributed to a talented artist, probably originating from the Po Valley, with an education issued from the Renaissance active in the first half of the 17th century, the complex development of "panneggio" - a technique used to render the molding and folds of the drapes - of the large perizonium. 

A South German or Flemish ivory relief of Saint Roch and the beggar,
18th century
height 5 1/4 in., width 3 3/4 in.; 13.3cm. by 9.5cm.

On his return incognito to Montpellier he was arrested as a spy (by orders of his own uncle) and thrown into prison, where he languished five years and died on 16 August 1327, without revealing his name, to avoid worldly glory. More

German, circa 1700
Wood, carved in, polychrome and gilt
H. 46.5 cm. 

Full-length presentation of Mark the Evangelist with a book in his left hand, flanked by a winged lion and standing on a pedestal.

Mark the Evangelist  is the traditionally ascribed author of the Gospel of Mark. Mark is said to have founded the Church of Alexandria, one of the most important episcopal sees of Early Christianity. His symbol is the winged lion. 

He was one of the "Seventy Disciples" sent out by Jesus to saturate Judea with the gospel. However, when Jesus explained that his flesh was "real food" and his blood was "real drink", many disciples left him, presumably including Mark. He was later restored to faith by the apostle Peter; he then became Peter’s interpreter, wrote the Gospel of Mark, founded the church of Africa, and became the bishop of Alexandria. More

Italy, 18th century
Terracotta, brown shards, polychrome
H. 57.5 cm

Mother of God, and the blessing of the Christ Child, holding a globe on his left arm .

Donato di Niccolo di Betto Bardi, called Donatello (1386-1466)
Madonna and Child, circa 1450
Terracotta relief
Height 32½in; width 20½in; 81.2cm; 50.8cm
Formerly in the church of San Giovanni Battista in Lissaro di Mestrino, Padua

Modeled in half-length, the Child supported in her arms and on her right hip, His loose swaddling cloth partially covering His torso, the Virgin’s head inclined downward to the left; as He touches His cheek to hers, they gaze lovingly at one another, His left arm pulls at her neck and the right hand gently tugs on her bodice, the Madonna’s thin veil falls about her neck and shoulders revealing parts of her body beneath it, remainders of original polychromy and gilding. More

2nd half of the 17th century 
Madonna in the Clouds. 
Ca. 1650. Softwood. Height: 90cm.

Statue, carved in the round, verso hollowed out, with original clasp-board. Christ child, angel head in the band of clouds and crown lost. Polychromy chipped and worn. 

SOUTH GERMAN, ca. 1680 
Christ on the Whipping Post. 
Height: 29cm. 
Carved in the round. 
Original polychromy

2nd half of the 18th century 
The Patron as a Roman soldier
Putting out a Home FIre
Softwood, polychromed
Height: 58cm

Alto-Adige, beginning of the 18th century
Madonna with child
Sculpted wood, painted in polychrome and gold
Height: 100 cm/39.3 inches

Christ as the Risen 
Lower Bavaria, standing around 1470/80
 on a round base. In kinked tube folds around the body draped sheath. Linde (?), Full round carved. Hands, sheep, bar and radiation later. Polychrome version skipped best. 
H. 97 cm.

Saint Stephen 
Southern German, circa 1490
In his left hand the book with the stones. The Deacon clothing falling into tube wrinkles. Linde, hollowed back, rest. (right hand and part of the base erg.); Version removed
H. 120 cm.

German, early 16th century 
Maria on terrain base sitting, the body of her son on the left knee
Edged pleats draped clothing. Linde, back hollowed, reworked surfaces partially. 
Polychrome version
H. 55 cm.

Christ as Man of Sorrows 
Southern German, 2nd half 17th century
Hands raised in a curved posture standing on ground base, with wounds
Retrospective view for a model of the early 16th century
Raised stars and cloud band.
Under the plinth old inscription "Nürnberg 1667".
H. 56 cm

The Sorrowful Christ 
. Southern German, 18th century
Sitting on Terrain base, his head in his right hand resting
 H. 47 cm.

A pair of angels 
Austria, early 18th century
Facing in pondering posture with hands raised, standing. Draped clothing
H. 74 cm.

Church Father 
Southern German, early 18th century
Half figure on cloud bank, Hands on his staff 
Angular-scale folds, falling cloak
 87 cm.

Lower Bavaria, mid-18th century, Josef German. (1717 Imst - 1787 Passau)
Standing on a rectangular base
 , Fitted draped clothing around the waist belted, falling in parallel tube folds
Old polychrome
H. 91 cm.

Corpus Christi 
Oberbayern to 1760/70 Four nail type
Skyward directed view, slightly S-shaped elongated sinewy Corpus
Polychrome paint
H. 101 cm.

 Bronze plaquette in Gothic style
Gilded, with two fields, with silvered figures of Saint Paul and Saint Matthew
Bronze chain
Austrian 19th Century

 Bronze plaquette in Gothic style
Gilded, with two fields, with silvered figures of Saint Paul and Saint Matthew

Acknowledgement: Van Ham Fine ArtHargesheimer Kunstauktionen Düsseldorf, Artemis Gallery, Private LotNeumeister

Images are copyright of their respective owners, assignees or others

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