Thursday, September 29, 2016

20 Sculptures, scenes from the Bible, by Johann Georg Pinsel, 6

Johann Georg Pinsel 
Abraham’s Sacrifice. c. 1760 
(from a church in the village of Hodovytsya). 
Museum of Sacral Sculpture, Lviv.

According to the Bible, God commands Abraham to offer his son Isaac as a sacrifice. After Isaac is bound to an altar, the angel of God stops Abraham at the last minute, saying "now I know you fear God." At this point, Abraham sees a ram caught in some nearby bushes and sacrifices the ram instead of Isaac.
The event occurred at "the mount of the LORD". The Books of Chronicles identify the location of this event as the hill on which Solomon was said to later build the Temple, now believed to be the Temple Mount in Jerusalem. More

Johann Georg Pinsel (1707-1762) was a Baroque-Rococo sculptor of German or Czech origin active in Red Ruthenia (then in Poland, now Ukraine).
Johann Georg Pinsel 
Samson opening the lion's mouth, c. 1758
Wood, polychrome and gilding
Museum of Sacral Sculpture, Lviv.
As a young man, Samson, the last of the Old Testament Judges of Israel, demonstrated his strength by slaying a lion with his bare hands. The subject’s relationship to the mythological story of Hercules and the Nemean lion and its mingling of classical and biblical iconographical traditions.
Johann Georg Pinsel 
Samson opening the lion's mouth, c. 1758
Wood, polychrome and gilding
Museum of Sacral Sculpture, Lviv.
Detail
Biographical details about him are scarce. He was discovered by J. Bołoz Antoniewicz and appeared in scholarly literature in 1923 in the monograph of Władysław Żyła "Dominican church and monastery in Lviv". His first and second name, some information about his family and approximate date of death were only established in 1993, with the discovery of registers of the Buchach Roman Catholic parish. The place and exact date of his birth remain unknown.
Johann Georg Pinsel 
Saint John the Evangelist, c. 1758 
Wood, polychrome and gilding, 
National Gallery of Art, Lviv
John the Evangelist is traditionally regarded as the author of the Gospel of John and other Johannine literature in the New Testament: the three Epistles of John and the Book of Revelation. More
Pinsel came to the region of Lviv most probably around 1750 and became court artist to Mikołaj Bazyli Potocki. He settled in Buchach and in 1751 married Marianna Majewska, with whom he had two sons. He closely collaborated with the renowned architect Bernard Meretyn His student was Maciej Polejowski.

Johann Georg Pinsel
Grieving Madonna, c. 1758
Wood, polychrome and gilding, 
National Gallery of Art, Lviv

Our Lady of Sorrows, the Sorrowful Mother or Mother of Sorrows, and Our Lady of Piety, Our Lady of the Seven Sorrows or Our Lady of the Seven Dolours are names by which the Blessed Virgin Mary is referred to in relation to sorrows in her life. As Mater Dolorosa, it is also a key subject for Marian art in the Catholic Church.

The Seven Sorrows of Mary are a popular Roman Catholic devotion. In common religious Catholic imagery, the Blessed Virgin Mary is portrayed in a sorrowful and lacrimating affect, with seven daggers piercing her heart, often bleeding. Devotional prayers that consist of meditation began to elaborate on her Seven Sorrows based on the prophecy of Simeon. Common examples of piety under this title are Servite rosary, or the Chaplet of the Seven Sorrows of Our Lady and the Seven Joys of Mary and more recently, "Sorrowful and Immaculate Heart of Mary". More

Johann Georg Pinsel
Grieving Madonna, c. 1758
Detail
Pinsel's works include sculptures and decorations of the Buchach townhall (1750s), the Trinitarian church (1756-1757) and the St. George's Cathedral (headquarters of Greek Catholics) in Lviv, (1759-1761), interiors of the Roman Catholic churches in: Monastyryska (1761), Horodenka (1752-1755) and Hodovytsia (1757-1758), sculptures in the Roman Catholic parish church in Budaniv.
Johann Georg Pinsel
New Testament Avatar, c. 1758
Wood, polychrome and gilding, 
National Gallery of Art, Lviv
Appearances of the "angel of the Lord" are often presented as a visible manifestation to humankind of God or a god. in Genesis the angel of God says, "I am the God of Beth-el"; in Exodus the angel of the Lord appeared to Moses in the flame of fire, and then the Lord says to him: "I am the God of thy father". At times the angel of the Lord speaks in such a way as to assume authority over previous promises. More
His only work that survived intact, in its original spatial arrangement, is the facade of the St. George's Cathedral. His sculptural complexes in the churches in Horodenka and Monastyryska were almost completely destroyed between 1939 and 1989. The figures of the high altar in Hodovytsia have been saved thanks to efforts of the staff of the Lviv Art Gallery
Johann Georg Pinsel
Saint Anna, c. 1761
Wood, polychrome and gilding, 
National Gallery of Art, Lviv

Saint Anne (also known as Ann or Anna) of David's house and line, was the mother of the Virgin Mary and grandmother of Jesus Christ, according to apocryphal Christian and Islamic tradition. Mary's mother is not named in the canonical gospels, nor in the Qur'an. Anne's name and that of her husband Joachim come only from New Testament apocrypha, of which the Protoevangelium of James (written perhaps around 150) seems to be the earliest that mentions them. More

Johann Georg Pinsel
Adoration of an Angel,  c. 1758
Wood, polychrome and gilding, 
Museum of Sacral Sculpture, Lviv

Johann Georg Pinsel
Adoration of an Angel,  c. 1758
Wood, polychrome and gilding, 
Museum of Sacral Sculpture, Lviv
Detail

Johann Georg Pinsel
Prophet Aaron, c. 1760-1761
Wood, polychrome and gilding, 
National Gallery of Art, Lviv

In the Hebrew Bible and the Quran, Aaron was the older brother of Moses and a prophet of God. Unlike Moses, who grew up in the Egyptian royal court, Aaron and his elder sister Miriam remained with their kinsmen in the eastern border-land of Egypt. When Moses first confronted the Egyptian king about the Israelites, Aaron served as his brother's spokesman to Pharaoh. Part of the Law that Moses received from God at Sinai granted Aaron the priesthood for himself and his male descendants, and he became the first High Priest of the Israelites. Various dates for his life have been proposed, ranging from approximately 1600 to 1200 BC. Aaron died before the Israelites crossed the Jordan river and he was buried on Mount Hor. More

Johann Georg Pinsel
Jesus among the Twelve scribes, approx. 1758 
Wood, polychrome and gilding, 
National Gallery of Art, Lviv

Every year Jesus’ parents went to Jerusalem for the Festival of the Passover.  When he was twelve years old, they went up to the festival, according to the custom.  After the festival was over, while his parents were returning home, the boy Jesus stayed behind in Jerusalem, but they were unaware of it.  Thinking he was in their company, they traveled on for a day. Then they began looking for him among their relatives and friends. When they did not find him, they went back to Jerusalem to look for him. After three days they found him in the temple courts, sitting among the teachers, listening to them and asking them questions.  Everyone who heard him was amazed at his understanding and his answers.  When his parents saw him, they were astonished. His mother said to him, “Son, why have you treated us like this? Your father and I have been anxiously searching for you.”

“Why were you searching for me?” he asked. “Didn’t you know I had to be in my Father’s house?” But they did not understand what he was saying to them. More

Johann Georg Pinsel
Jesus among the Twelve scribes", approx. 1758 
Wood, polychrome and gilding, 
National Gallery of Art, Lviv
Detail

Johann Georg Pinsel
Jesus among the Twelve scribes", approx. 1758 
Wood, polychrome and gilding, 
National Gallery of Art, Lviv
Detail

Johann Georg Pinze
Saint Vincent

Saint Vincent of Saragossa was a deacon of the Church of Saragossa. He is the patron saint of Lisbon and Valencia. He was born at Huesca and martyred under the Emperor Diocletian around the year 304. The earliest account of Vincent's martyrdom is in a carmen (lyric poem) written by the poet Prudentius, who wrote a series of lyric poems, Peristephanon ("Crowns of Martyrdom"), on Hispanic and Roman martyrs.

He was born at Huesca, near Saragossa, Spain sometime during the latter part of the 3rd century. Vincent spent most of his life in the city of Saragossa, where he was educated and ordained to the diaconate by Bishop Valerius of Saragossa, who commissioned Vincent to preach throughout the diocese. Because Valerius suffered from a speech impediment, Vincent acted as his spokesman.

When the Roman Emperor Diocletian began persecuting Christians in Spain, both were brought before the Roman governor, Dacian in Valencia. Vincent and his bishop Valerius were confined to the prison of Valencia. Though he was finally offered release if he would consign Scripture to the fire, Vincent refused. Speaking on behalf of his bishop, he informed the judge that they were ready to suffer everything for their faith, and that they could pay no heed either to threats or promises.

His outspoken manner so angered the governor that Vincent was inflicted every sort of torture on him. He was stretched on the rack and his flesh torn with iron hooks. Then his wounds were rubbed with salt and he was burned alive upon a red-hot gridiron. Finally he was cast into prison and laid on a floor scattered with broken pottery, where he died. During his martyrdom he preserved such peace and tranquillity that it astonished his jailer, who repented from his sins and was converted. Vincent's dead body was thrown into the sea in a sack, but was later recovered by the Christians and his veneration immediately spread throughout the Church. The aged bishop Valerius was exiled. More

Johann Georg Pinze
Saint Elizabeth, c.  (1755)

Saint Elizabeth of Hungary, T.O.S.F. ( 7 July 1207 – 17 November 1231), also known as Saint Elizabeth of Thuringia, was a princess of the Kingdom of Hungary, Landgravine of ThuringiaGermany, and a greatly venerated Catholic saint who was an early member of the Third Order of St. Francis, by which she is honored as its patroness. Elizabeth was married at the age of 14, and widowed at 20. After her husband's death she sent her children away and regained her dowry, using the money to build a hospital where she herself served the sick. She became a symbol of Christian charity after her death at the age of 24 and was quickly canonized. More

Johann Georg Pinze
Saint Francis Borgia, 1753

Saint Francis Borgia, S.J., 4th Duke of Gandía, (28 October 1510 – 30 September 1572) was a Grandee of Spain, a Spanish Jesuit, and third Superior General of the Society of Jesus. He was canonized on 20 June 1670 by Pope Clement X. He was born in Duchy of Gandía, Valencia. His father was Juan Borgia, 3rd Duke of Gandía, the son of Giovanni Borgia, the son of Pope Alexander VI (Rodrigo Borgia). 

Although as a child he was very pious and wished to become a monk, his family sent him instead to the court of Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor (who was also King Charles I of Spain), where he was welcomed as a kinsman. He distinguished himself there, accompanying the Emperor on several campaigns.

In September 1529, he married a Portuguese noblewoman in Madrid, Leonor de Castro Mello y Meneses. They had eight children. In 1539, he convoyed the corpse of Isabella of Portugal, Philip II of Spain's mother, to her burial place in Granada. In that same year (1539), he became Viceroy of Catalonia, replacing Fadrique de Portugal y Noroña, though he was only 29.

In 1543 upon the death of his father, Francis became the 4th Duke of Gandía. Francis’ diplomatic abilities came into question when his attempt to arrange a marriage between Prince Philip and the Princess of Portugal failed, thus ending an attempt to bring these two countries together and resulting in his retirement. By then 33 years old he had retired to his native place and devoted himself to religious activities. More

Johann Georg Pinze
St. Joachim, c. 1755

Joachim was the husband of Saint Anne and the father of Mary, the mother of Jesus, according to the Catholic, Orthodox, and Anglican traditions. The story of Joachim and Anne first appears in the apocryphal Gospel of James. Joachim and Anne are not mentioned in the Bible. More

Johann Georg Pinze
Saint Felix with Child (1755)

Felix of Cantalice, (1515-1587) Born to peasant parents in Cantalice, Italy, in the central Italian region of Lazio. Canonized by Pope Clement XI in 1712, he was the first Capuchin friar to be named a saint. Felix entered the newly founded Capuchin friars as a lay brother at the Citta Ducale friary in the municipality of Anticoli Corrado. It is said that he was well noted for his piety. In 1547 he was sent to Rome as quaestor of the Capuchin Friary of St. Bonaventure, where he spent his remaining 40 years begging alms to help in the friars' work of aiding the sick and the poor.

In Rome, Brother Felix became a familiar sight, wandering barefoot through the streets, with a sack slung over his shoulders, knocking on doors to seek donations. He received permission from his superiors to help the needy, especially widows with many children. It is said that his begging sack was as bottomless as his heart. Brother Felix blessed all benefactors and all those he met with a humble “Deo Gratias!” (thanks be to God!). Felix was so successful in his work that during the famine of 1580, the political leader of Rome asked the Capuchins if they would 'lend' Felix to them so he could collect food and provisions for the entire city. The Capuchins agreed and Felix embraced his new task.

The plain-spoken Brother Felix was a good friend of St. Philip Neri and an acquaintance of Charles Borromeo. Felix developed a reputation as a healer. As he got older, his superior ordered him to wear sandals to protect his health. Cardinal Santori had offered to use his influence to have the elderly Felix relieved of the difficult task of questing, but Felix refused. More

Johann Georg Pinze
Saint Tobias, (1755)

Saint Tobias, was one of a group of ten Christian soldiers in the imperial Roman army of Emperor Licinius who were martyred together for refusing to sacrifice to Roman gods. He was burned at the stake c.315 at Sebaste, Armenia

Johann Georg Pinzel
Saint Onuphrius, c. 1761

Saint Onuphrius was one of the Desert Fathers who made a great impression on Eastern spirituality in the third and fourth centuries, around the time that Christianity was emerging as the dominant faith of the Roman Empire. At this time many Christians were inspired to go out into the desert and live in prayer in the harsh environment of extreme heat and cold, with little to eat and drink, surrounded by all sorts of dangerous animals and robbers.[5]

It is uncertain in which century Onuphrius lived; the account of Paphnutius the Ascetic, who encountered him in the Egyptian desert, forms the sole source for our knowledge of the life of Saint Onuphrius. A tradition states that Onuphrius had studied jurisprudence and philosophy before becoming a monk near Thebes and then a hermit.

According to Paphnutius’s account, Paphnutius undertook a pilgrimage to study the hermits’ way of life and to determine whether it was for him. Wandering in the desert for 16 days, on the 17th day, Paphnutius came across a wild figure covered in hair, wearing a loincloth of leaves. Frightened, Paphnutius ran away, up a mountain, but the figure called him back, shouting, “Come down to me, man of God, for I am a man also, dwelling in the desert for the love of God.”

Turning back, Paphnutius talked to the wild figure, who introduced himself as Onuphrius and explained that he had once been a monk at a large monastery in the Thebaid but who had now lived as a hermit for 70 years, enduring extreme thirst, hunger, and discomforts. He said that it was his guardian angel who had brought him to this desolate place. Onuphrius took Paphnutius to his cell, and they spoke until sunset, when bread and water miraculously appeared outside of the hermit's cell.

They spent the night in the prayer, and in the morning Paphnutius discovered that Onuphrius was near death. Paphnutius, distressed, asked the hermit if he should occupy Onuphrius’ cell after the hermit’s death, but Onuphrius told him, "That may not be, thy work is in Egypt with thy brethren." Onuphrius asked Paphnutius for there to be a memorial with incense in Egypt in remembrance of the hermit. He then blessed the traveler and died.

Due to the hard and rocky ground, Paphnutius could not dig a hole for a grave, and therefore covered Onuphrius’ body in a cloak, leaving the hermit’s body in a cleft of the rocks. After the burial, Onuphrius’ cell crumbled, which Paphnutius took to be a sign that he should not stay. More




Acknowledgement: WikipediaIrina Olih
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