Sunday, November 27, 2016

13 Paintings, scenes from the Bible, by The Old Masters, with footnotes # 33

Circle of Frans Francken
Bible Story, c. 17th C.
Oil on Canvas
53 x 117.2 cm
Private Collection

The painting made by the circle of the Flemish painter Frans Francken the Younger, who belonged to the famous painter family Francken, shows presumably the Bible story of Jacob and Esau – with view to an idyllic landscape and animals at the left side of the horizontal format. More

Frans Francken the Younger (Antwerp, 1581 – Antwerp, 6 May 1642) was a Flemish painter and the best-known member of the large Francken family of artists. He played an important role in the development of Flemish art in the first half of the 17th century through his innovations in genre painting and introduction of new subject matter. Francken was born in Antwerp where he trained with his father Frans Francken the Elder. He may also have trained with his uncle Hieronymus Francken I in Paris, together with his brother Hieronymus Francken II. He became a master in the Antwerp Guild of Saint Luke in 1605 and was deacon of the Guild in 1616. More

Workshop of Paolo Veronese
Rebecca at the Well, 16th/17th C
Oil on Canvas
129.5 x 151.5 cm
Private Collection

A depiction of the biblical scene presenting Rebecca and Abraham's servant Eliezer at the well. He offers her a presents to make her become the wife of Abraham's son Issac (1st book of Moses, 24). The artists are presumably the sons of Paolo Veronese They painted the protagonists brighter than the others figures. The painting, which has been family-owned since the 18th century, was in the past presented in Palazzo Sarcinelli in Conegliano.

Paolo Caliari, known as Paolo Veronese (1528 – 19 April 1588) was an Italian Renaissance painter based in Venice, most famous for large history paintings of both religious and mythological subjects, such as The Wedding at Cana and The Feast in the House of Levi. With Titian, who was at least a generation older, and Tintoretto, ten years older, he was one of the "great trio that dominated Venetian painting of the cinquecento" or 16th-century late Renaissance. Veronese is known as a supreme colorist, and after an early period with Mannerist influence turned to a more naturalist style influenced by Titian.

His most famous works are elaborate narrative cycles, executed in a dramatic and colorful style, full of majestic architectural settings and glittering pageantry. His large paintings of biblical feasts, crowded with figures, painted for the refectories of monasteries in Venice and Verona are especially famous, and he was also the leading Venetian painter of ceilings. Most of these works remain in situ, or at least in Venice, and his representation in most museums is mainly composed of smaller works such as portraits that do not always show him at his best or most typical.

He has always been appreciated for "the chromatic brilliance of his palette, the splendor and sensibility of his brushwork, the aristocratic elegance of his figures, and the magnificence of his spectacle", but his work has been felt "not to permit expression of the profound, the human, or the sublime", and of the "great trio" he has often been the least appreciated by modern criticism. Nonetheless, "many of the greatest artists ... may be counted among his admirers, including Rubens, Watteau, Tiepolo, Delacroix and Renoir". More

Adam van Noort (1561/62 – 1641)
Crucifixion, 16th /17th C.
Oil on Canvas
84 x 114 cm
Private Collection

Adam van Noort (1561/62 – 1641) was a Flemish painter and draughtsman and one of the teachers of Peter Paul Rubens. Hewas born and died in Antwerp. Adam van Noort probably initially trained with his father but must have had other teachers as his father died when he was still young. He became a master of the Guild of Saint Luke in 1587. 

Van Noort served as dean of the Guild of Saint Luke from 1597 until 1602. He had problems with the Guild who accused him of poor management of the accounts and misappropriation of materials of the Guild.

Adam’s claim to fame largely rests on the fact that he was the teacher of two of the leading Flemish Baroque painters Peter Paul Rubens and Jacob Jordaens. Rubens only stayed for a little over a year and is not believed to have been influenced much by van Noort's training. More

Pietro della Vecchia (1602/03-1678)
Christ And The Adultress,  17th C.
Oil on Canvas
112 x 148 cm
Private Collection

The present painting depicts the well-known biblical scene ‘Christ and the Adulteress’, derived from the Gospel of John. Here, Jesus contradicts the scribes who had caught a woman in the act of adultery and therefore wanted to stone her to death. The subject belongs to the typical repertoire of the artist.

Pietro della Vecchia (1602/03-1678), also known as Pietro Muttoni or Pietro della Vecchia Muttoni, was the son of a prominent Venetian family. His early works are deeply influenced by Carlo Saraceni and his student, which has led to the assumption that the painter may has initially been trained by them. After a possible short stay in Rome around 1621-22, he was active in the studio of Alessandro Varotari, called Padovanino, around 1625 and first familiarized with the masters of the Venetian Cinquecento, such as Titian and Giorgione. Many works by the artist can be still found in churches in Venice, as well as in important international collections, such as the Kunsthistorisches Museum in Vienna, the Louvre in Paris, the Gemäldegalerie in Dresden and the National Gallery in Dublin. More

Attributed to Caspar de Crayer, (1584-1669) – Flemish
Christ as Man of Sorrows, 17th C.
Oil on Canvas
98.5 x 77.5 cm
Private Collection

Empathic depiction of the suffering Christ crowned with thorns: The painting is characterized by the quality of the painting and the motif since the artist rarely painted portraits. The close approach to Christ and his physiognomy and gestures provide the moving impact of the painting. More

Gaspard de Crayer (1584-1669) was a Flemish painter born in Antwerp and worked in the region, as well as in the Netherlands and in Spain. The artist who is famous for his sacral paintings, his oeuvre contains hundreds of altarpieces painted only rarely profane subjects, such as the lifesize portrait of Philipp IV. king of Spain in the 17th century. Gaspard de Crayer began his education attending the school of Raphael van Coxcie. He was guided by the works of the masters of the Italian Renaissance as well as by those of his contemporary and compatriot Peter Paul Rubens (1577-1640). Later the artist became painter at the court of Philipp IV. De Crayer, joining the important church painters of his time and created a lot of major works of the Counterreformation. More

Pietro Bardellino (1728-1806)
Presentation of the Virgin Mary, c.1780
Oil on Canvas
163 x 150 cm
Private Collection

Shown is a scene from the apocryphal Gospel of James, known as the Presentation of the Blessed Virgin Mary, in which Mary, at the age of three years, was taken by her parents Joachim and Anna to the temple of Jerusalem, where she would be raised and educated by the virgins. More

Pietro Bardellino (1728–1806) was an Italian painter. He was born in Naples, and initially trained by Francesco de Mura. In 1773 he became director of the Accademia Napoletana del Disegno which later became the Royal Academy of Fine Arts in Naples. Bardellino joined with the Rococo movement, influenced by Corrado Giaquinto. He primarily painted religious and mythological themes in oil paintings and frescoes. He frescoed the ceiling of the church of San Giuseppe in Naples. He died in Naples in 1819 More

Vicente Joanes (c.1555 - after 1621)
3 Altarpieces, Spain, c.1580
Oil on panel
134 x 43 cm each
Private Collection

The panels featuring the evangelists Matthew and Mark as well as Archangel Gabriel were originally part of the Retablo Mayor created for the parish church of Bocairente in the province of Valencia. It included a total of 26 panels and measured 9 x 5.50 meters. The commission from 6.7.1578 was actually to be executed by Vicente Juan Macip (c. 1500-1579), the father of Vicente Joanes; However, he died shortly after the start of the work. The Retablo is the first documented large commissioned work by Vicente Joanes. It was finished in 1583. More

Vicente Joanes (c.1555 - after 1621) was born in Fuente la Higuera and moved to Boicarente in 1578 to work in the succession of his father at the altar of the parish church. In addition to this work, he also completed works by his father in the Cathedral of Valencia. Vicente Joanes continued the style of his father until the 17th century, ignoring the new naturalistic currents. More

Vicente Juan Masip (1510–1579)
The Last Supper, circa 1562
Oil on panel
Height: 116 cm (45.7 in). Width: 191 cm (75.2 in).
Prado Museum,  Madrid, Spain

Vicente Juan Masip (La Font de la Figuera 1507 – Bocairent 1579) was a Spanish painter of the Renaissance period. He is commonly considered the foremost member of the Valencian school of painters. Born in La Font de la Figuera, he is said to have studied his art for some time in Italy due to Sebastiano del Piombo's influence, with which school his affinities are closest, but maybe he never went to Italy, and he received this influence by the Italian peintures arriving to Valencia. Furthermore, two Italian painters Paolo da San Leocadio and Francesco Pagano, were engaged by cardinal Rodrigo Borgia for painting in Valencia Cathedral. Otherwise, the greater part of his professional life was spent in the city of Valencia, where most of the extant examples of his work are now found. All relate to religious subjects, and are characterized by dignity of conception, accuracy of drawing, beauty of color, and minuteness of finish. He died at Bocairent (near Xàtiva) while working on an altarpiece in the church there.

He never painted a profane subject, and emulated Luis de Vargas and Fra Angelico, in never painting unless he had received holy communion. Painting for him was a solemn exercise, an oratory process, full of prayers and fasts. He never lacked church patronage; the archbishop of Valencia, St. Thomas of Villanova, ordered a set of cartoon panels about the Life of the Virgin to model for some tapestries. He also painted for the churches of the Jesuits, Dominicans, Minims, Augustinians, Franciscans, and for the churches of San Nicolás, Santa Cruz, Carmen Calzado, St Esteban, Corona, Temple, San Andrés, San Bartolomé and San Miguel de los Reyes. More

Abraham Bloemaert (1564-1651)
St. Frederik I., c.1650
Oil on Canvas
125.5 x 96,5 cm
Private Collection

Frederick I was Bishop of Utrecht between 815/816 and 834/838 AD, and is a saint of the Eastern Orthodox Church and Roman Catholic Church.

Frederick was born around 780 in Friesland and was a grandson of the Frisian King Radboud. According to Church records, he died on 18 July 838 but other sources give dates between 834 and 838. In any case it is certain that he was murdered.

At a young age he was taught at Utrecht by the clergy, including Bishop Ricfried. After completing his studies he was ordained priest and put in charge of converting the remaining heathens in the northern areas of the diocese, but also in areas outside of the diocese. It is known that he preached at Walcheren and together with St. Odulfus in Stavoren and its surroundings.

After the death of Ricfried in 815/816, Frederick was chosen as Bishop of Utrecht. He was known for his piety and erudition. He maintained a correspondence with Rabanus Maurus. He was praised for his knowledge and understanding during the synod of Mainz in 829. The hagiographyVita S. Bonifacii has been attributed to him.

It is unclear exactly how Frederick came to an end. It has been established that he was murdered, but by whom and why is unclear. Legend tells that he was stabbed by two men after the offering of the Mass on 18 July 838. According to the 11th and 12th century writers Bishop Otbert of Liège (Passio Frederici) and William of Malmesbury, the killers were hired by Empress Judith, because of Frederick's regular criticism of her dissolute way of life. Later writers like Cesare Baronio and Jean Mabillon write that the inhabitants of Walcheren, who were hostile to Christianity, sent them as a response to Frederick's preaching there.

The latter seems the most plausible. There are no sources of writers of the time showing that the empress was unchaste or immoral, or that Frederick had made that allegation. Moreover, Walcheren was quite hostile to the missionaries from Utrecht.

Shortly after his death, Frederick was canonized. His feast day is 18 July and he is the patron saint of the deaf. He was buried in St. Salvator's Church in Utrecht. More

Abraham Bloemaert (1564-1651) was a Dutch painter and son of sculptor and architect Cornelis Bloemaert received his education in Utrecht and Paris. In 1597 he registered as a citizen in Amsterdam and was active in Utrecht from 1611 onwards. Bloemaert was a representative of the Flemish school and refined history painting, portrait painting, genre and landscape painting. He greatly influenced Dutch painting, one of his students was Gerrit van Honthorst. Bloemaert's works can be admired at the Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco, at the Louvre in Paris and at the galleries of Berlin. More

Venetian School, late 16th C.
Death of Jezebel
Oil on Canvas
84.5 x 73 cm
Private Collection

Dramatic scenery featuring the death of queen Jezebel in a cruel way; presumably painted by an anonymous Venetian painter and follower of Bonifazio Veronese (c. 1487-1553). More

Death of Jezebel. In 2Kgs 9:30-37, Jezebel meets her demise at the hands of Jehu, her own eunuchs, a team of horses, and a pack of dogs—it takes a lot to kill a queen. When she hears of Jehu’s arrival in Jezreel, she arranges her hair and paints her eyes, actions that are often seen as sexually suggestive. However, these acts are those of a proud and powerful queen. She arrays herself in full royal splendor and stands at the window to await the usurper. The idea that these acts are more about political power than sexual seduction is confirmed by her words to Jehu when he arrives at the gate. She throws out a taunt: “Is it peace, Zimri, murderer of your master?” Her reference is to the earlier coup of Zimri, who killed King Elah and all of the other claimants to the throne (1Kgs 16:8-14). Her statement may also be a curse meant to thwart the success of Jehu’s insurrection, since Zimri ruled for only one week before he too became the victim of political violence (1Kgs 16:15-20). Jezebel’s last words are clearly meant not to entice but to deride Jehu; her last beautifying acts can be understood in the same way.

Jehu responds, “Who is on my side?” Responding to his call, Jezebel’s own eunuchs throw her out the window, her blood splattering as she hits the ground. Jehu’s now bespattered horses then trample her. The image of an adorned woman at a window suggests not only royal power but also goddesses (especially Hathor, Asherah, and Astarte), who are also depicted looking out windows. In this way, the death of Jezebel is not just the death of a Phoenician princess who became queen of Israel but also the symbolic death of the goddesses she worships and represents. It is not enough simply to kill her; she must be violently expelled from the political and religious community. More

Venetian school (art). From the later part of the 15th century, Venice had a distinctive, thriving and influential art scene. Beginning with the work of Giorgione (c. 1477–1510), and the workshop of Giovanni Bellini (c. 1430–1516), major artists of the Venetian school included Titian (1489–1576), Tintoretto (1518–1594), Veronese (1528–1588) and the Bassano (1510–1592). Considered to bring a primacy of color over line, this tradition was seen to contrast with the Mannerism then prevalent in the rest of Italy, and the Venetian style is viewed as having had a great influence on the subsequent development of painting. More

EDUARD (Carl Friedrich E.) Holbein (German, 1807-1875)
Ruth and Boaz
Oil on Canvas
54 1/2 x 68in (138 x 172.5cm)
Private Collection

Ruth and Boaz. Ruth was a Moabite woman had come to Israel as the widow of an Israelite man. She had returned with her mother-in-law, Naomi, who had also lost her husband. They lived together in a humble situation, and Ruth would go to the fields each day to glean food in the fields during the harvest.

Boaz was a landowner where Ruth came to find grain. He knew of her situation and told his workers to leave plenty of grain for her to find. Boaz also offered her food with the other workers and encouraged her to work in the safety of his fields throughout the harvest.

Naomi noted that Boaz was a close relative who, according to Jewish law, had the right to marry Ruth after the death of her husband. Naomi encouraged Ruth to go to Boaz in the evening and present herself willing to accept a marriage proposal from him. When she did, he was pleased, yet noted that there was one relative who was closer in line to marry Ruth.

The next day, Boaz met with this relative and presented the situation. The relative turned down the offer as he felt it would cause harm to his own family situation. Boaz then made a commitment in front of the town’s leaders that he would take Ruth as his wife. More

Carl Eduard Holbein (* 1807 in Berlin ; † 19th February 1875 ) was a German painter and illustrator . Holbein was born in 1807 in Berlin. He visited the Berlin Academy and studied, from 1832 to 1839, at the studio of Carl Joseph Begas. From 1851 he taught at the at the Berlin Academy, which appointed him a professor in 1853. In addition, he gave Max Liebermann and Hans von Marées private drawing lessons. At the beginning of the 1850s he painted, together with Karl striker, portraits of the German Emperor in the ceiling medallions in the Medieval hall of the Neues Museum in Berlin. In 1856 he restored, with his brother, the sculptor Friedrich Wilhelm Holbein , the high altar in St. Nikolai in Stralsund . He died on 19 February 1875 in Berlin. More

William Charles Thomas Dobson RA RWS (1817 – 30 January 1898)
The prosperous days of Job
Oil on Canvas
44 x 35in (111.7 x 88.9cm)
Private Collection

The Bible passage referred to in the painting is Job, 42:12-15 when God rewards Job after all his tribulations. "So the Lord blessed the latter end of Job more than his beginning.." Job is depicted at the center of the composition lifting his hands in thanks to the Lord and is surrounded by his generations. More

William Charles Thomas Dobson RA RWS (1817 – 30 January 1898) was an English painter born in Hamburg, the son of the merchant John Dobson, who had married in Germany. The family came to England in 1826, and Dobson was educated in London. He studied in the British Museum, and was taught by Edward Opie. In 1836 he entered the Royal Academy Schools, and was instructed by Charles Lock Eastlake.

Through Eastlake's influence Dobson obtained a post in the government school of design established in the old Royal Academy rooms at Somerset House. In 1843 he became head-master of the government school of design in Birmingham, resigning in 1845, and went to Italy, where he spent most of his time in Rome. Moving on to Germany, he was impressed by the Nazarene school of that time. On returning to England he took up religious painting.

Dobson was elected an Associate of the Royal Academy on 31 January 1860, and an academician in January 1872. He was a member of the Etching Club, founded in 1842. In 1870 he was elected an associate of the Royal Watercolour Society, of which he became a full member in 1875. He remained a constant exhibitor, both at the Royal Academy and at the Royal Watercolour Society, contributing about a hundred and twenty pictures to the former and about sixty to the latter. He was appointed a British juror for the Exposition Universelle, Paris in 1878 and was represented there by 3 watercolours. He became a retired academician in 1895, and died at Ventnor on 30 January 1898. More

Robert Brydall, (1839-1907)
Fairies leading the crusaders
Oil on Canvas
20 x 30in (51 x 76cm)
Private Collection

Robert Brydall, (1839-1907) was a nineteenth century Glasgow-born painter and art historian. Although he spent most of his career in Scotland, he made frequent trips to Italy, as did many of his contemporaries. Brydall was both a student and teacher at Glasgow School of Art. In 1889 he published “Art in Scotland: its Origin and Progress” – the first major text on the subject. The London Quarterly Review characterized Brydall’s book as “one of the best and most interesting histories of art ever written.” 

In 1881, Brydall left the Glasgow School of Art to set up a new private school called St George’s Art School, also in Glasgow. It is unclear when the School ceased operating, but it is believed that he was still running it in 1896.

Brydall was a regular exhibitor at the Royal Glasgow Institute (1862-1907), and the Royal Scottish Academy (1862-1887); in addition, he exhibited in London at the Royal Academy (1906) and the Royal Scottish Society of Painters in Watercolor. His subjects included historical scenes and landscapes. He also showed a number of fairy subjects, including The Elf Dance (RGI, 1871) and Fairy Treasure, (RSA, 1874), and works inspired by Shakespeare’s Midsummer Night’s Dream. More

Acknowledgement: BONHAMS NEW YORKAuctionata

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