Sunday, April 9, 2017

10 Icons from the Bible, with footnotes, #14

Italian School, 15th Century
A Crucifix
Tempera on gold ground panel
93.1/8 x 71½ in. (236.5 x 181.7 cm.)
Private collection

French School, 1501 
Christ on the cross between two angels bearing the arms of the kingdom of France 
Oil on board
h: 233 w: 132 cm 
Private collection

The Latin quotation inscribed at the bottom of this Crucifixion is taken from the Book of Jeremiah (22: 3): "Practice righteousness and equity, deliver the oppressed from the hands of the Lord, 'Do not abuse the stranger, the orphan, and the widow: do not use violence, nor shed innocent blood in this place.' The judicial character of this inscription testifies to the vocation of this work to adorn a courtroom. The presence of a Crucifixion in a court is not surprising for the medieval period. More Latin quotation

Italian School, 15th Century
Tempera and gold on panel
24 1/4 by 16 1/2 in.; 62.1 by 42.6 cm
Private collection

Russian icon of Pokrov, nineteenth century
Tempera on wood
H .: 54 cm ?? L. 44 cm.
Private collection

The Intercession of the Theotokos or the Protection of Our Most Holy Lady Theotokos and Ever-Virgin Mary, known in Church Slavonic as Pokrov, is a feast of the Mother of God celebrated in the Eastern Orthodox and Byzantine Catholic Churches. The feast celebrates the protection afforded the faithful through the intercessions of the Theotokos (lit. Mother of God, the Eastern version of the Virgin Mary). In the Slavic Orthodox Churches it is celebrated as the most important solemnity besides the Twelve Great Feasts. 

According to Eastern Orthodox Sacred Tradition, the apparition of Mary the Theotokos occurred during the 10th century at the Blachernae church in Constantinople where several of her relics (her robe, veil, and part of her belt) were kept. On Sunday, October 1 at four in the morning, St. Andrew the Blessed Fool-for-Christ, who was a Slav by birth, saw the dome of the church open and the Virgin Mary enter, moving in the air above him, glowing and surrounded by angels and saints. She knelt and prayed with tears for all faithful Christians in the world. The Virgin Mary asked Her Son, Jesus Christ, to accept the prayers of all the people entreating Him and looking for Her protection. Once Her prayer was completed, She walked to the altar and continued to pray. Afterwards, She spread Her veil over all the people in the church as a protection. More Pokrov

Surrounded by 12 scenes. Russian work, nineteenth century.
Tempera on wood
H: 71 cm L: 61 cm.
Private collection

The resurrection of Jesus is the Christian religious belief that, after being put to death, Jesus rose again from the dead. It is the central tenet of Christian theology and part of the Nicene Creed: "On the third day he rose again in accordance with the Scriptures"

Just before sunrise on the day after the regular weekly Sabbath three women, Mary Magdalene, Mary the mother of James, and Salome, come to anoint Jesus' body, wondering how they would be able to roll the large rock away from the tomb; but they found the rock already rolled aside and a young man in white inside; he told them that Jesus had risen, and that they should tell Peter and the disciples that he will meet them in Galilee, "just as he told you". More The resurrection of Jesus 

Nicolas Tarabroff, active from 1893 to 1917
Tempera on wood, decorated with a gilt rimmed riza, and a nimbus in polychrome enamels cloisonné. 
L: 26.5 cm. Kiotre: H .68 cm
Private collection

In Christian iconography, Christ Pantocrator refers to a specific depiction of Christ. Pantocrator, or Pantokrator, is used in this context, a translation of one of many names of God in Judaism.

When the Hebrew Bible was translated into Greek as the Septuagint, Pantokrator was used both for YHWH Sabaoth "Lord of Hosts" and for El Shaddai "God Almighty". In the New Testament, Pantokrator is used once by Paul. Aside from that one occurrence, John of Patmos is the only New Testament author to use the word Pantokrator. The author of the Book of Revelation uses the word nine times, and while the references to God and Christ in Revelation are at times interchangeable, Pantokrator appears to be reserved for God. More Christ Pantocrator

SAINT PETER AND SAINT PAUL, Russian, eighteenth century.
Tempera on wood
H. 90 cm  L: 51 cm.
Private collection

Saint Peter (AD 30; d. between AD 64 and 68), also known as Simon Peter, Simeon, or Simōn, according to the New Testament, was one of the Twelve Apostles of Jesus Christ, leaders of the early Christian Church. He is also the "Apostle of the Apostles", an honor 3rd-century theologian Hippolytus of Rome gave him, and the Roman Catholic Church considers him to be the first pope, ordained by Jesus in the "Rock of My Church" dialogue in Matthew 16:18. The ancient Christian churches all venerate Peter as a major saint and associate him with founding the Church of Antioch and later the Church in Rome, but differ about the authority of his various successors in present-day Christianity.

Originally a fisherman, he played a leadership role and was with Jesus during events witnessed by only a few apostles, such as the Transfiguration. According to the gospels, Peter confessed Jesus as the Messiah, was part of Jesus's inner circle, thrice denied Jesus and wept bitterly once he realised his deed, and preached on the day of Pentecost.

According to Christian tradition, Peter was crucified in Rome under Emperor Nero Augustus Caesar. It is traditionally held that he was crucified upside down at his own request, since he saw himself unworthy to be crucified in the same way as Jesus. Tradition holds that he was crucified at the site of the Clementine Chapel. More Saint Peter

Paul the Apostle (c. 5 – c. 67), commonly known as Saint Paul, and also known by his native name Saul of Tarsus was an apostle (though not one of the Twelve Apostles) who taught the gospel of the Christ to the first century world. He is generally considered one of the most important figures of the Apostolic Age. In the mid-30s to the mid-50s AD, he founded several churches in Asia Minor and Europe. Paul took advantage of his status as both a Jew and a Roman citizen to minister to both Jewish and Roman audiences. More Saint Paul

 VIRGIN,  Greek, c. 1863
Tempera on wood
H .: 21 cm  L. 15 cm
Private collection

THE PASSION OF CHRIST, Russian, c. century.
Tempera on wood.
H .: 62.5 cm  L: 53.5 cm
Private collection

In Christianity, the Passion (from Late Latin: passionem "suffering, enduring") is the short final period in the life of Jesus covering his entrance visit to Jerusalem and leading to his crucifixion on Mount Calvary, defining the climactic event central to Christian doctrine of Salvation History.

The word passion has since taken on a more general application and now may also apply to accounts of the suffering and death of Christian martyrs, sometimes using the Latin form passio.  More

VIRGIN AND CHILD, Russian work of the twentieth century.
Tempera on wood, with riza, in gilded metal
H .: 13 cm  L.: 11 cm
Private collection

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