Friday, May 12, 2017

10 Paintings, RELIGIOUS ART - Interpretations of the Bible! by The Old Masters, With Footnotes # 48

Italian School, 16th Century
The Adoration of the Magi
Oil on canvas 
39 x 44 1/2 inches (99 x 113 cm) 
Private collection

The Adoration of the Magi (anglicized from the Matthean Vulgate Latin section title: A Magis adoratur) is the name traditionally given to the subject in the Nativity of Jesus in art in which the three Magi, represented as kings, especially in the West, having found Jesus by following a star, lay before him gifts of gold, frankincense, and myrrh, and worship him. The Adoration of the Magi

Italian School, 16th Century. The first two decades of the 16th century witnessed the harmonious balance and elevated conception of High Renaissance style, perfected in Florence and Rome by Leonardo, Raphael, and Michelangelo. It brought together a seamless blend of form and meaning. In Venice, Bellini, Giorgione, and Titian devoted themselves to an art that was more sensual, with luminous color and a tactile handling of paint, preoccupations that would attract Venetian artists for generations, including Tintoretto and Veronese later in the century.

In the 1520s, Florence and Rome, but not Venice, saw a stylistic shift following the social and political upheaval ensuing from the disastrous Sack of Rome. Mannerism, as practiced by Bronzino, Pontormo, and Rosso, was a self-consciously elegant style that traded naturalism for artifice, employing unnaturally compressed space, elongated figures, and acid color. While mannerism became popular internationally, and lingered in northern Europe, by around 1580 it had fallen out of favor in Italy. One factor was the desire of the Church, challenged by the Protestant Revolution, to connect with the faithful. In place of mannerism’s ingenuous complications and artificiality, the Counter-Reformation Church required painting that was direct and emotionally resonant. The “reform of painting,” as it was called, was launched by two brothers and a cousin in Bologna: Annibale, Agostino, and Lodovico Carracci. They established an academy that emphasized drawing from life and looked to inspiration from Titian and other Renaissance masters, restoring the naturalism and classical balance of the early 16th century. More Italian School, 16th Century

Attributed to Alessandro Varotari, known as Il Padovanino, 1588 - 1649
The Lamentation of Christ 
Oil on canvas 
33 1/2 x 34 1/4 inches (85 x 87 cm)
Private collection

The Lamentation of Christ is a very common subject in Christian art from the High Middle Ages to the Baroque. After Jesus was crucified, his body was removed from the cross and his friends mourned over his body. This event has been depicted by many different artists.

Lamentation works are very often included in cycles of the Life of Christ, and also form the subject of many individual works. One specific type of Lamentation depicts only Jesus' mother Mary cradling his body. These are known as Pietà (Italian for "pity") More

Padovanino or Varotari Alessandro Leone (4 April 1588 – 20 July 1649), was an Italian painter of the late-Mannerist and early-Baroque Venetian school, best known for having mentored Pietro Liberi, Giulio Carpioni, and Bartolommeo Scaligero.

Born in Padua, he was the son of the local painter and architect Dario Varotari the Elder, who most probably provided his earliest training. Early paintings show the influence of Titian. He moved to Venice in 1614. He is known to have traveled to Rome, where he was much employed in producing copies of major paintings by major Renaissance artists of the prior generation. In 1619 he worked on the mosaics of the Basilica of San Marcos. In the following years he worked on decorating the interior of the Church of Santa Maria Maggiore. In 1625 he made another trip to Rome. He painted a major battle canvas entitled The victory of the Carnuti (Celts) over the Normans. More Padovanino

Matteo Loves, (Italian, active 1625-circa 1645)
The Virgin Mary adoring the Christ Child, circa 1645
Oil on canvas
60-3/4 x 44-1/4 inches (154.3 x 112.4 cm)
Private collection

Loves expresses here the theme of the Madonna and Child in an eminently clear and touching manner. A sophisticated iconography, however, is also evident. The crossing of the Virgin's hands and her deeply-absorbed facial expression indicate her awareness of Christ's future sacrifice for all mankind. As for the Christ Child, his raised left arm reinforces this bond with the adoring Mary. He lies on what is clearly an altar, where Christ's death and resurrection are commemorated in the Mass. Moreover, the white cloth on which he rests is a time-honored reference to the winding cloth in which Christ was placed after the Crucifixion, as evident in the Madonna paintings of such Renaissance masters as Giovanni Bellini. More The Virgin Mary adoring the Christ Child

Matteo Loves (Italian, active 1625-circa 1645) was a painter active in Cento from about 1625 to 1662. Few biographical details are know. It is said he was born in Cologne to an English family, and arrived as a young man in Cento, where he trained with Guercino. Works by Loves can be found in the Pinacoteca of Cento and in the church of San Rocco e San Sebastiano. More Matteo Loves

Roman School (Italian, Late 17th-Early 18th Century)
Daniel in the Lion's Den with an angel bearing the prophet Habakkuk, circa 1690-1710
Oil on canvas
38 x 51-3/4 inches (96.5 x 131.4 cm)
Private collection

Daniel, one of the four "greater prophets" of the Old Testament, was an exile in Babylonia who attained great rank thanks to his ability to interpret dreams. He was thrown into a den of lions after disobeying one of the religious edicts of the Persian king, Darius. An angel of the Lord, though, was able to shut the lions' mouths, and Daniel was spared. The king then ordered that the prophet's accusers be placed in the den, where they instead were consumed (Daniel 6: 16-22). In that part of Apocrypha known as the History of the Destruction of Bel and the Dragon (23-42), an alternative narrative is described. There Daniel was punished for killing a sacred dragon by means of feeding it cakes made of pitch, fat and hair. His rescue was the result of the angel (said to be the archangel Michael) summoning another prophet, Habakkuk, who was told to bring Daniel food. To arrange this, the angel then transported Habakkuk by carrying him by his hair, which is the action depicted here at upper right. More Daniel

Roman School, 17th Century. Both Michelangelo and Raphael worked in Rome, making it the centre of High Renaissance; in the 17th century it was the centre of the Baroque movement represented by Bernini and Pietro da Cortona. From the 17th century the presence of classical remains drew artists from all over Europe including Poussin, Claude Lorrain, Piranesi, Pannini and Mengs.

In the 17th century Italian art was diffused mainly from Rome, the indisputable centre of the Baroque.

Roman Mannerism, spread abroad by the prolific work of Federico and Taddeo Zuccari, was continued by Roncalli, called Pomarancio and especially by Giuseppe Cesari, called Cavaliere d'Arpino, whose reputation was immense. The reaction against Mannerism engendered two different movements, which were sometimes linked together: one was realist with Caravaggio, the other eclectic and decorative with the Carracci.

Caravaggio brought about the greatest pictorial revolution of the century. His imposing compositions, deliberately simplified, are remarkable for their rigorous sense of reality and for the contrasting light falling from one side that accentuates the volumes. He changed from small paintings of genre and still-life, clear in light and cool in colour, to harsh realism, strongly modelled volumes and dramatic light and shade. His work, like his life, caused much scandal and excited international admiration.

Among the Italian disciples of Caravaggio Carlo Saraceni was the only direct Venetian follower. Bartolomeo Manfredi imitated Caravaggio's genre paintings; Orazio Gentileschi and his daughter Artemisia Gentileschi showed a marked realism. Caravaggio's biographer and enemy, Giovanni Baglione underwent his influence. More

Anto Carte, (Belgian, 1886-1954)
The Annunciation, 1923
Graphite and watercolor on paper on linen
29-1/2 x 29-1/2 inches (74.9 x 74.9 cm)
Private collection

The Annunciation referred to as the Annunciation to the Blessed Virgin Mary, the Annunciation of Our Lady, or the Annunciation of the Lord, is the Christian celebration of the announcement by the angel Gabriel to the Virgin Mary that she would conceive and become the mother of Jesus, the Son of God, marking his Incarnation. Gabriel told Mary to name her son Yehoshua , meaning "YHWH is salvation".

According to Luke 1:26, the Annunciation occurred "in the sixth month" of Elizabeth's pregnancy. Many Christians observe this event with the Feast of the Annunciation on 25 March, an approximation of the northern vernal equinox nine full months before Christmas, the ceremonial birthday of Jesus. In England, this came to be known as Lady Day. It marked the new year until 1752. The 2nd-century writer Irenaeus of Lyon regarded the conception of Jesus as 25 March coinciding with the Passion. More The Annunciation

Antoine Carte , known as Anto Carte , born on 8 December 1886 In Mons , and died on 13 February 1954 1 in Brussels, is a Belgian painter , lithographer and illustrator. Son of a carpenter and furniture maker,  in 1900 Anto Carte entered in the studio of the painter, decorator, and entrepreneur Frantz Depooter . From 1897 to 1908, he attended the Academy of Mons and then Brussels where he studied Constant Montald , Émile Fabry and Jean Delville , three important Symbolist painters who exerted a profound influence on him.

In 1912 and 1913, a scholarship allowed him to go to Paris where he stayed with Cavaillé-Coll and Leon Bakst who worked for the Russian Ballets of Serge de Diaghilev. In Paris, he also met Émile Verhaeren and discovered the work of Pierre Puvis de Chavannes and Maurice Denis .

In 1923 he made contact with the Carnegie Institute of Pittsburgh in the United States at the Paris-based exhibition Les Imagiers belges, which brought together Gustave Van de Woestijne , Valerius De Saedeleer , Isidore Opsomer and Marcel Wolfers. In 1925 a great retrospective secured a lasting success with the American public.

From 1929 to 1932, he taught at the Higher Institute of Decorative Arts in La Cambre in Brussels and then in 1932 at the Royal Academy of Fine Arts in Brussels . He left the Mont - Blanc region to settle in Wauthier-Braine , in Walloon Brabant .

He also realizes drawings, engravings, illustrations of books; He created posters, lithographs, banknotes, stamps, and designs frescoes, stained-glass windows and carpets. More Anto Carte

Giovanni Stefano Danedi, called Montalto, TREVIGLIO 1608 - 1689 MILAN
Madonna of the Apocalypse 
oil on canvas
80.5 x 58 cm.; 31 5/8  x 22 7/8  in.
Private collection

Madonna of the ApocalypseImages of the Virgin as the woman of the Apocalypse became extremely popular in the late 1400s and were produced in large numbers after Sixtus IV granted an indulgence of 11,000 years for each specific prayer said in front of one of them. Mary was often called the second Eve, who, by giving birth to Christ, brought redemption to humankind. More Madonna of the Apocalypse

In this narrative the woman gives birth to a male child that is attacked by the Dragon identified as the Devil and Satan. When the child is taken to heaven, the woman flees into the wilderness leading to "War in Heaven" in which the angels cast out the Dragon. The Dragon attacks the woman, who is given wings to escape, and then attacks her again with a flood of water from his mouth, which is subsequently swallowed by the earth. Frustrated, the dragon initiates war on "the remnant of her seed" identified as the righteous followers of Christ.

The Woman of the Apocalypse is widely identified as the Virgin Mary. This interpretation is held by the ancient Church as well as in the medieval and modern Roman Catholic Church. This view does not negate the alternative interpretation of the Woman representing the Church, as in modern Catholic dogma, Mary is herself considered both the Mother of God and the Mother of the Church (while in Reformed theology and traditions that are averse to Marian veneration, the interpretation of the Woman represents the naturally predominate church). More Woman of the Apocalypse

Giovanni Stefano Danedi (1608 or 1612–1690) was an Italian painter of the Baroque period. He was born at Treviglio, and was the brother of Gioseffo Danedi, also a painter called il Montalto and also a pupil of the painter Pier Francesco Mazzucchelli (il Morazzone) while in Milan. In Milan, he contributed to the decoration of Santa Maria della Grazie and the Church of the Carmine. Also painted frescoes in the presbytery of the Cathedral of Monza. Danedi also painted a series of frescoes for the Villa Frisiani Mereghetti in Corbeto and two chapels on the right of the church of the Certosa di Pavia. He also painted for the Sanctuary at the Sacro Monte of Varallo. He died in Milan. More on Giovanni Stefano Danedi

Timoleon Сarl von Neff, (Russian, 1805 -1876)
Angel with thurible 

Revelation 8:3-5: Mogoro 7“And another angel came and stood at the altar with a golden censer; and he was given much incense to mingle with the prayers of all the saints upon the golden altar before the throne; and the smoke of the incense rose with the prayers of the saints from the hand of the angel before God. Then the angel took the censer and filled it with fire from the altar and threw it on the earth; and there were peals of thunder, voices, flashes of lightning, and an earthquake.”

Carl Timoleon von Neff ( Püssi , October 14, 1804 - St. Petersburg , January 5, 1877 ) was an Estonian painter. He was born in Pussi, part of the Russian Empire, to a family of German origin. He began studying art in Estonia under the guidance of Karl von Kügelgen and continued at the Academy of Fine Arts in Dresden. Where he graduated in 1825. After graduating, he traveled and shared his time between his hometown of Estonia , Italy and the imperial capital of St. Petersburg . In St. Petersburg he was commissioned to paint the portrait of the daughters of Emperor Nicola I. Von Neffda became linked to the court, and made a career as an artist and works for the highest high spheres of society. He has received prestigious commissions both in St. Petersburg and abroad. As an acknowledgment for his work, in particular to contribute to the artistic abundance of numerous churches, he has been generously rewarded with various forms of official recognition. In addition, he became one of the closest advisors of the Emperor in matters relating to art. In 1846, he was appointed honorary member of the Academy of Florence. More Carl Timoleon von Neff

Follower of Annibale Carracci, 1560 - 1609
oil on canvas, in an elaborate carved and gilt wood frame
116 x 85.5 cm.; 45 5/8  x 33 3/4  in.
Private collection

The Adoration of the Shepherds, in the Nativity of Jesus in art, is a scene in which shepherds are near witnesses to the birth of Jesus in Bethlehem, arriving soon after the actual birth. It is often combined in art with the Adoration of the Magi, in which case it is typically just referred to by the latter title. The Annunciation to the Shepherds, when they are summoned by an angel to the scene, is a distinct subject. More on The Adoration of the Shepherds

Annibale Carracci (November 3, 1560 – July 15, 1609) was an Italian painter, active in Bologna and later in Rome. Carracci is the forgotten artist of the 17th century. A quiet, introverted man, his conspicuous lack of torrid love affairs, salacious scandals, or violent behavior have lead to his gradual disappearance on the horizon of famous artists.

The art of Annibale Carracci was far more influential in the course of Baroque art. His style was revolutionary for its unprecedented naturalism and careful, objective study from life. Unlike like-minded contemporary Caravaggio, however, Annibale was able to mix that revolutionary realism with the idealized perfection of classical and Renaissance art, thus pioneering a style of "idealized realism" that represented the middle path between the outlandish fantasy of Mannerism and the dark, gritty realism of Caravaggio and his followers.

It's a credit to Carracci that artists such as Poussin, Bernini and Rubens have admired his work and many of his assistant and pupils went on to become renowned artists in their own right, including Giovanni Lanfranco, Domenichino and Guido Reni.

However, although he was adored in the 17th century, Annibale Carracci's reputation suffered the same as the rest of the Baroque: it was smashed in the 18th century with the rise of Neoclassicism. More Annibale Carracci

Sevillian School, 17th century, 
Oil on canvas
102 x 74.5 cm; 40 1/8  x 29 1/4  in.
Private collection

The Annunciation referred to as the Annunciation to the Blessed Virgin Mary, the Annunciation of Our Lady, or the Annunciation of the Lord, is the Christian celebration of the announcement by the angel Gabriel to the Virgin Mary that she would conceive and become the mother of Jesus, the Son of God, marking his Incarnation. Gabriel told Mary to name her son Yehoshua , meaning "YHWH is salvation".

According to Luke 1:26, the Annunciation occurred "in the sixth month" of Elizabeth's pregnancy. Many Christians observe this event with the Feast of the Annunciation on 25 March, an approximation of the northern vernal equinox nine full months before Christmas, the ceremonial birthday of Jesus. In England, this came to be known as Lady Day. It marked the new year until 1752. The 2nd-century writer Irenaeus of Lyon regarded the conception of Jesus as 25 March coinciding with the Passion. More The Annunciation

Sevillian School, 17th century. Seville’s spectacular growth into Spain’s largest and most dynamic city in the 16th and early 17th centuries was built on its trading monopoly with the newly discovered America.  It retained this privilege, bestowed on it in 1503, until the beginning of the 18th century. 

Cultural life flourished under the patronage of the aristocracy and the church.. The prosperity experienced was accompanied by an explosion of art. Sculptors such as the prolific Juan Martínez Montañés (1568-1649) and Juan de Mesa (1583-1627), and artists of the calibre of Francisco de Zurburán (1598-1664), Bartolomé Murillo (1617-82) and Juan Valdés Leal (1622-90) were outstanding proponents of the religious art that so captured the imagination of the people. More Sevillian School

Attributed to Lambert Sustris, 1515 - 1585
The Martyrdom of a Military Saint 
Oil on panel 
9 1/2 x 14 1/8 inches (24 x 36 cm)
Private collection

Lambert Sustris (c. 1515-1520 – c. 1584) was a Dutch painter active mainly in Venice in the Mannerist style. He is also referred to as Alberto de Olanda (Albert of Holland). He was born in Amsterdam, and only came to Venice when over 40 years old. His training is unknown, but he was utilized by the studio of Titian for the depiction of landscapes. He accompanied Titian on his trips to Augsburg in 1548 and 1550–1551, and there executed portraits. Returning to Venice, he was influenced by Parmigianino and Andrea Meldolla. He was a teacher to Girolamo Muziano. His son was Friedrich Sustris. More Lambert Sustris

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