Saturday, August 12, 2017

10 Paintings, RELIGIOUS ART - Interpretations of the Bible! by The Old Masters, With Footnotes # 51

Matthias Stomer, 1600 - 1652
Capture of Christ, c. 1640
Oil on canvas
208 x 272 cm
Private collection. Courtesy Benappi Fine Art

The arrest of Jesus is a pivotal event recorded in the canonical gospels. The event ultimately leads, in the Gospel accounts, to Jesus' crucifixion. Jesus was arrested by the Temple guards of the Sanhedrin in the Garden of Gethsemane, immediately after the kiss of Judas, which is traditionally said to have been an act of betrayal since Judas made a deal with the chief priests to arrest Jesus.
The arrest led immediately to his trial before the Sanhedrin, during which they condemned him to death and handed him to Pilate the following morning. In Christian theology, the events from the Last Supper until the crucifixion and resurrection of Jesus are referred to as the Passion. More on Capture of Christ

Matthias Stom or Matthias Stomer (c. 1600 – after 1652) was a Dutch golden age painter considered one of the masters of Utrecht Caravaggism. Stom spent most of his artistic life in Italy, and 200 of his works have been preserved. It is conjectured that Stom was born at Amersfoort or in the Utrecht area, but many details of his life are vague. An early mention of Stom was around 1630, when he lived in the same location as Paulus Bor had lived a few years earlier. He was a pupil of Gerard van Honthorst in Rome after 1615.
He remained in Rome until 1632, after which he traveled to Naples, where he stayed until 1640. He then moved to Palermo, and delivered paintings for churches in Caccamo and Monreale. He sold three paintings to Antonio Ruffo, duke of Messina. It is speculated that he died in Sicily, or alternatively in Northern Italy, where in 1652 he painted an altar piece for the church in Chiuduno. More

Gentile da Fabriano,  (1370–1427)
Madonna, c. 1420-1427
95 × 57 cm (37.4 × 22.4 in)
National Gallery of Art, Washington (D.C.)

In the Middle Ages and the Renaissance, painters and sculptors often incorporated inscriptions into their work. Many of these were legible texts in Latin or other European languages, but sometimes painters reached east, borrowing the languages of the Holy Land. Arabic was especially popular, but there was one small problem: Prior to the 16th century, hardly any Europeans actually knew the language. The solution? Fake Arabic. More at Fake Arabic

Gentile da Fabriano (c. 1370 – 1427) was an Italian painter known for his participation in the International Gothic painter style. He worked in various places in central Italy, mostly in Tuscany. By around 1405, Gentile da Fabriano was working in Venice. He painted a panel for the church of Santa Sofia, now lost; Jacopo Bellini worked perhaps in his workshop. Between 1408 and 1409, he painted a fresco (now lost) in the Doge's Palace depicting the naval battle between the Venetians and Otto III. In Venice he knew Pisanello and perhaps Michelino da Besozzo.

On 6 August 1420 he was in Florence, where he painted his famous altarpiece depicting the Adoration of the Magi (1423), now in the Uffizi and regarded as one of the masterpieces of the International Gothic style. His other works in Florence include the Quaratesi Polyptych (May 1425). In June–August 1425 he was in Siena, where he painted a Madonna with Child, now lost, for the Palazzo dei Notai on Piazza del Campo. Until October he was in Orvieto, where he painted his fresco of the Madonna and Child in the Cathedral. In 1427 he arrived in Rome, commissioned by Pope Martin V the decoration of the nave of the Basilica of St. John in Lateran, which was completed by Pisanello after his death.

Gentile is known to have died before 14 October 1427. He is commonly said to have been buried in the church now called S. Francesca Romana in Florence, but his tomb vanished; there is evidence, however, that he may be buried in the church of Santa Maria in Trastevere, in Rome, the place of his death. More on Gentile da Fabriano

XVI Century Italian. Umbrian Artist
Sant'Antonio Abate, c. 1400 - 1449
Saint Anthony Abbot
Church of St. Francis, Narni  (Umbria, Italy)

Saint Anthony or Antony (251–356) was a Christian monk from Egypt, revered since his death as a saint. He is distinguished from other saints named Anthony by various epithets: Anthony the Great, Anthony of Egypt, Anthony the Abbot, Anthony of the Desert, Anthony the Anchorite, and Anthony of Thebes. For his importance among the Desert Fathers and to all later Christian monasticism, he is also known as the Father of All Monks. His feast day is celebrated on January 17 among the Orthodox and Catholic churches and on Tobi 22 in the Egyptian calendar used by the Coptic Church.
The biography of Anthony's life by Athanasius of Alexandria helped to spread the concept of Christian monasticism, particularly in Western Europe via its Latin translations. He is often erroneously considered the first Christian monk, but as his biography and other sources make clear, there were many ascetics before him. Anthony was, however, the first to go into the wilderness, a geographical move that seems to have contributed to his renown. Accounts of Anthony enduring supernatural temptation during his sojourn in the Eastern Desert of Egypt inspired the often-repeated subject of the temptation of St. Anthony in Western art and literature. More Saint Anthony

Italian Renaissance art has historically been discussed as a series of regional ‘schools’ of artists, usually centred on one of the great cities of Italy (such as Florence or Venice). But the story was always more complicated. Central Italy – that is to say, Umbria, Southern Tuscany and the Marche – was rarely as marginal as these histories have suggested. Much of this area fell within the Papal States, and Central Italian artists were consistently more successful in Renaissance Rome than their (more famous) Florentine or Venetian counterparts. More on Umbrian Artists

Jules-Antoine Duvaux, BORDEAUX 1818 - 1884 PARIS
Oil on canvas
92,2 x 73,5 cm ; 36 1/4 by 29 in.
Private collection

Saint Blandina (French: Blandine, died 177 AD) was a Christian martyr during the reign of Emperor Marcus Aurelius. She belongs to the band of martyrs of Lyon who, after some of their number had endured frightful tortures, suffered martyrdom in 177 in the reign of Marcus Aurelius.

While the imperial legate was away, the chiliarch, a military commander, and the duumvir, a civil magistrate, threw a number of Christians, who confessed their faith, into prison. When the legate returned, the imprisoned believers were brought to trial. Among these Christians was Blandina, a slave, who had been taken into custody along with her master, also a Christian. But although the legate caused her to be tortured in a horrible manner, so that even the executioners became exhausted "as they did not know what more they could do to her", still she remained faithful and repeated to every question "I am a Christian, and we commit no wrongdoing.

Blandina was subjected to new tortures with a number of companions in the town's amphitheater (now known as the Amphitheatre of the Three Gauls) at the time of the public games. She was bound to a stake and wild beasts were set on her. According to legend, they did not, however, touch her. After enduring this for a number of days she was led into the arena to see the sufferings of her companions. Finally, as the last of the martyrs, she was scourged, placed on a red-hot grate, enclosed in a net and thrown before a wild steer who tossed her into the air with his horns, and at last killed with a dagger. More on Blandina

Jules-Antoine Gilles Duvaux , born on the 12 January 1818 In Bordeaux and died on 6 July 1884 In Paris, was a French painter, draftsman and engraver.

A student of Charlet, Jules Antoine Devaux specializes in painting battles, decorum and military costumes. His first exhibition dates from 1848, at the Salon des artistes français, where he presents Charge de cuirassiers in Valmy, which won the gold medal. In 1857, he presented The Assault of Sevastopol (National Museum of the Castles of Versailles and Trianon).

He undertook a trip to Sicily in 1859, returning with watercolors and drawings; Souvenirs de Sicily, which he exhibited at the Salon of 1863. He exhibited regularly until 1884. More on Jules-Antoine Gilles Duvaux

 Aureliano Milani, (1675-1749)
Samson slaying the Philistines, c. 18th century.
Oil on canvas
225x290 cm
Private collection

Samson was an Old Testament judge who is known more as an adventurer of great physical strength as well as a womanizer. Like Hercules, he slayed a lion with his bare hands and then wore the skin to broadcast his super-human capabilities. Taunted by the Philistines, Samson wielded an ass’s jawbone and slew a thousand of them until they lay in heaps on the ground. The medieval church regarded Samson as a prefiguring of Christ; he also often represents Fortitude. More on Samson Slaying the Philistines.

Aureliano Milani (1675–1749) was an Italian painter of the late-Baroque period, active in Bologna and Rome. He was a pupil of Cesare Gennari and Lorenzo Pasinelli in Bologna, although he also adhered to a style derived from the Carracci. He took up his residence in Rome, being ill able to support a family of ten children at Bologna. He painted a Beheaded St. John the Baptist for the church of the Bergamaschi in Rome. In Rome, he abounded with commissions, and was promoted with Domenico Maria Muratori and Donato Creti. Aureliano also taught during many years at Bologna, and among other pupils of his were Giuseppe Marchesi (called il Sansone) and Antonio Gionima. More on Aureliano Milani

Charles-Zacharie Landelle, LAVAL 1812 - 1908 CHENNEVIÈRES-SUR-MARNE
Oil on canvas
55,5 x 38 cm ; 24 by 18 in.
Private collection

Ruth was a Moabite woman had come to Israel as the widow of an Israelite man. She had returned with her mother-in-law, Naomi, who had also lost her husband. They lived together in a humble situation, and Ruth would go to the fields each day to glean food in the fields during the harvest.

Boaz was a landowner where Ruth came to find grain. He knew of her situation and told his workers to leave plenty of grain for her to find. Boaz also offered her food with the other workers and encouraged her to work in the safety of his fields throughout the harvest.

Naomi noted that Boaz was a close relative who, according to Jewish law, had the right to marry Ruth after the death of her husband. Naomi encouraged Ruth to go to Boaz in the evening and present herself willing to accept a marriage proposal from him. When she did, he was pleased, yet noted that there was one relative who was closer in line to marry Ruth.

The next day, Boaz met with this relative and presented the situation. The relative turned down the offer as he felt it would cause harm to his own family situation. Boaz then made a commitment in front of the town’s leaders that he would take Ruth as his wife. More about Ruth 

Zacharie Charles Landelle, born on 2 June 1821 In Laval, the October 13 , 1908 In Chennevières-sur-Marne, is a French painter and portraitist. Born to a modest family. In 1857 he married Alice Letronne, daughter of the general of the guard Jean-Antoine Letronne who saved the National Archives in 1848 . Two sons, Georges and Paul, were born of this union, all of whom died during the lifetime of their father.

He followed his father  to Paris 1827. He only return to his hometown only at the end of his life.

He developed a talent and a very solid craft at the Ecole des Beaux Arts in Paris where he was admitted in 1837 as a pupil of Paul Delaroche and Ary Scheffer . At the beginning of his career, he painted several portraits to support himself. Influenced by Italian paintings after traveling in the South of France and Italy, he made copies of some of the paintings by the great masters of the Renaissance at the Louvre.

His portraits and large religious paintings were instantly successful, and allowed him to gain the recognition of the high society of the nineteenth century. Napoleon III admired him very much, bought from him the two canvases of the Beatitudes ( 1852 ) to offer them to the city of Laval. He received numerous state commissions.

From his travels in North Africa and the Middle East in the 1860s , he created works that were often very successful. His first voyage to Morocco dates from 1866. In 1866 he painted Femme Fellah, which earned him the nickname of a painter of the fellahs , a work purchased by the Emperor for his personal collection, but destroyed in the fire at the Château de Saint-Cloud in 1870. A replica, executed By Charles Landelle, is preserved in the museum of the Old Castle of Laval.

In 1875 , he is in Egypt, and travels the Nile with the explorer Mariette . He travelled each year to the East, or Algeria and returned with paintings. At the end of his life, Charles Landelle encouraged the creation in Laval of a museum of painting which he inaugurated in 1895, at the height of his glory, alongside the President of the Republic : it is the current Science Museum. More on Zacharie Charles Landelle

Johannes Vermeer,  (1632–1675)
Saint Praxedis, c. 1655
Oil on canvas
40 × 32 cm (15.7 × 12.6 in)
Private collection

Saint Praxedis is an oil painting attributed to Johannes Vermeer. This attribution has often been questioned. However, in 2014 the auction house Christie's announced the results of new investigations which in their opinion demonstrate conclusively that it is a Vermeer. The painting is a copy of a work by Felice Ficherelli (below), and depicts the early Roman martyr, Saint Praxedis or Praxedes. It may be Vermeer's earliest surviving work, dating from 1655. 

The painting shows the saint squeezing a martyr's blood from a sponge into an ornate vessel. The most obvious difference between the two is that there is no crucifix in the Ferrara work. More on this painting

Saint Praxedes is a traditional Christian saint of the 2nd century. She is sometimes called Praxedis or Praxed. Little is known about Praxedes, and not all accounts agree. According to Jacobus de Voragine's The Golden Legend, Praxedes was the sister of Saint Pudentiana; their brothers were Saint Donatus and Saint Timothy. 

When the Emperor Marcus Antoninus was hunting down Christians, she sought them out to relieve them with money, care, comfort and every charitable aid. Some she hid in her house, others she encouraged to keep firm in the faith, and of yet others she buried the bodies; and she allowed those who were in prison or toiling in slavery to lack nothing. At last, being unable any longer to bear the cruelties inflicted on Christians, she prayed to God that, if it were expedient for her to die, she might be released from beholding such sufferings. And so on July 21 she was called to the reward of her goodness in Heaven. More on Saint Praxedes

Johannes, Jan or Johan Vermeer (1632 – December 1675) was a Dutch painter who specialized in domestic interior scenes of middle-class life. Vermeer was a moderately successful provincial genre painter in his lifetime. He evidently was not wealthy, leaving his wife and children in debt at his death, perhaps because he produced relatively few paintings.

Vermeer worked slowly and with great care, and frequently used very expensive pigments. He is particularly renowned for his masterly treatment and use of light in his work.

He was recognized during his lifetime in Delft and The Hague, but his modest celebrity gave way to obscurity after his death. In the 19th century, Vermeer was rediscovered by Gustav Friedrich Waagen and Théophile Thoré-Bürger, who published an essay attributing 66 pictures to him, although only 34 paintings are universally attributed to him today. Since that time, Vermeer's reputation has grown, and he is now acknowledged as one of the greatest painters of the Dutch Golden Age. More Vermeer

Felice Ficherelli, 1605 - 1645
Santa Prassede, c. 1640–1645
Oil on canvas
104 x 80.5 cm.
Collection Fergnani, Ferrarra

Felice Ficherelli (30 August 1605 – 5 March 1660) was an Italian painter of the Baroque period, born in San Gimignano and active mainly in Tuscany. Among Ficherelli's early patrons was Conte Bardi, who persuaded Ficherelli to move to Florence and to study with the painter Jacopo da Empoli. Empoli's influence is evident in the sumptuous fabrics seen in many of Ficherelli's works. Ficherelli was nicknamed "Felice Riposo" for his retiring nature.

There is a controversial copy of Ficherelli's Saint Praxedis, which appears to be signed by Johannes Vermeer and dated 1655. More on Felice Ficherelli

Antonio Leonelli, from Crevalcore,
Holy Family with san Giovanni Battista, ca 1490-1500
Tempera on canvas
67 x 57 cm.
Renaissance Palace Moscow

Antonio Leonelli (Antonio da Crevalcore) (Italian, Crevalcore, born by 1443–died by 1525, Bologna. The influence of Cossa's Bolognese painting on Crevalcore is clear, but the connection between Cossa's Ferrarese works or Ercole de' Roberti's later Ferrarese paintings and Crevalcore is less evident.

He is first mentioned as a painter in Bologna in 1461. He is then documented at intervals until 1525. His earliest documented painting, from 1480, is a ruinous fresco above the portico of the church San Giacomo Maggiore. His only other signed and dated painting, of 1493, was destroyed in Berlin during World War II. His fascination with perspectival devices and his love of trompe-l'oeil details found its expression in the still-lifes for which he became famous. More on Antonio Leonelli from Crevalcore

Dante Gabriel Rossetti, (1828–1882)
The Annunciation, circa 1849
Oil on canvas
Height: 724 mm (28.5 in). Width: 419 mm (16.5 in).
Tate Britain

Ecce Ancilla Domini (Latin: "Behold the handmaiden of the Lord"), or The Annunciation, is an oil painting by the English artist Dante Gabriel Rossetti, first painted in 1850 and now in Tate Britain in London. The Latin title is a quotation from the Vulgate text of the first chapter of the Gospel of Saint Luke, describing the Annunciation, where Mary accepts the message brought to her by the Angel Gabriel that she would give birth to a child (Jesus) by God. More on Ecce Ancilla Domini

Dante Gabriel Rossetti, (1828–1882)
The Annunciation, circa 1849

Dante Gabriel Rossetti (12 May 1828 – 9 April 1882) was an English poet, illustrator, painter and translator. He founded the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood in 1848 with William Holman Hunt and John Everett Millais. Rossetti was later to be the main inspiration for a second generation of artists and writers influenced by the movement. His work also influenced the European Symbolists and was a major precursor of the Aesthetic movement.

Rossetti's personal life was closely linked to his work, especially his relationships with his models and muses Elizabeth Siddal, Fanny Cornforth and Jane Morris. More on Dante Gabriel Rossetti

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