Saturday, August 8, 2015

10 Works - Punic Wars: Battle of Zama - 202 B.C; the end of the power of the great Hannibal Barca

Scipio Africanus Defeating Hannibal, c.1470 (tempera on fabric mounted on panel) (see also 488155)
Attributed to d'Antonio, Biagio (1446-1516)
Scipio Africanus Defeating Hannibal, c.1470
Tempera on fabric mounted on panel
39.2x151 cms

The Battle of Zama in the summer of 202 BC marked the end of the power of the great Hannibal Barca. With its greatest son, also Carthage should be at a virtual end. True, it should limp on for some time, but with its defeat at the end of the Second Punic War it no longer was a significant power.


Zama also marks the pinnacle in the career of the outstanding Roman general Publius Cornelius Scipio, whose reforms to the Roman army made him legendary.

In 204 BC, after fourteen years of war, Roman troops landed in North Africa with the goal of directly attacking Carthage.


1
French School, c. 17th
Battle of Zama
Oil on Canvas
Unsigned
40 x 46 in

Led by Scipio Africanus, they succeeded in defeating Carthaginian forces led by Hasdrubal Gisco and their Numidian allies commanded by Syphax at Utica and Great Plains (203 BC). With their situation precarious, the Carthaginian leadership sued for peace with Scipio. This offered accepted by the Romans who offered moderate terms. While the treaty was being debated in Rome, Carthaginian forces captured a Roman supply fleet in the Gulf of Tunes.


After Cornelis Cort - Netherlandish, c. 1533–before April 22, 1578
The Battle of Zama, after 1567
Oil on panel
23 1/4 x 16 13/16 in. (59 x 42.7 cm)

Cornelis Cort (c. 1533 – c. 17 March 1578) was a Dutch engraver and draughtsman. He spent the last 12 years of his life in Italy, where he was known as Cornelio Fiammingo.

Cort moved to Venice and lived in the house of Titian in 1565 and 1566, where he produced engraving based on Titian's works. From Italy he wandered back to the Netherlands, but he returned to Venice soon after 1567, proceeding thence to Bologna and Rome, where he produced engravings from all the great masters of the time.

At Rome he founded the well-known school in which, as Bartsch tells us, the simple line of Marcantonio was modified by a brilliant touch of the burin, afterwards imitated and perfected by Agostino Carracci in Italy and Nicolaes de Bruyn in the Netherlands. In Italy he gave circulation to the works of Raphael, Titian, Polidoro da Caravaggio, Baroccio, Giulio Clovio, Muziano and the Zuccari.


He visited Florence between 1569 and 1571 probably working for the Medici family and returned to Titian in Venice in 1571-1572. He spent the last year of his life in Rome, where he died. 


Cesari, Bernardino: <em>The Fight Between Scipio Africanus and Hannibal</em>
Bernardino Cesari
The Fight Between Scipio Africanus and Hannibal
Oil on copper


Bernardino Cesari (1571 – 30 June 1622)[1] was an Italian painter of the late-Mannerist and early Baroque period, active mainly in Rome and Naples, where he assisted his brother Giuseppe Cesari (Cavaliere d'Arpino).

On 9 November 1592, he was sentenced to death, for consorting with bandits, and fled to Naples. On 13 May 1593, he was pardoned and returned to Rome. In 1616, he travelled with Giuseppe to Naples to assist in painting in the Certosa di San Martino, then to Piedimonte di Alife to paint a large Last Judgement in the chapel of the fathers "predicatori". He traveled to Monte Cassino where he labored with Giuseppe in the frescoes for the refectory and the stanza of San Benedict, then to Rome where he painted an oil canvas of Noli me tangere, a fresco of Constatine the great, a St. Peter, and three oil paintings for the church Santi Cosma e Damiano. More

This success, along with the return of Hannibal and his veterans from Italy, led to change of heart on the part of the Carthaginian senate. Emboldened, they elected to continue the conflict and Hannibal set about enlarging his army. Marching out with a total force of around 54,000 men and 80 elephants, Hannibal encountered Scipio near Zama Regia. Forming his men in three lines, Hannibal placed his mercenaries in first line, his new recruits and levies in the second, and his Italian veterans in the third. These men were supported by the elephants to the front and Numidian and Carthaginian cavalry on the flanks.


Henri-Paul Motte (1846–1922)
Carthaginian war elephants engage Roman infantry at the Battle of Zama (202 BC). around 1890


Henri-Paul Motte (13 December 1846 – 1 April 1922) was a 19th-century French painter from Paris, who specialised in history painting and historic genre. He was a pupil of Jean-Léon Gérôme and began to exhibit at the Paris Salon from 1874 onwards. The painting Le cheval de Troie (The Trojan horse) was the artist's début at the Salon, and was acquired by the Wadsworth Atheneum in 2011. In 1892 he was made a Chevalier de la Légion d'honneur. He won a bronze medal at the Exposition Universelle (1900). He is best known for his work of the Siege of La Rochelle, a depiction of Cardinal Richelieu in battle in the 17th century, completed in 1881. More

To counter Hannibal's army, Scipio deployed his 43,000 men in a similar formation consisting of three lines, with Roman and Numidian cavalry on the flanks. Aware that Hannibal's elephants could be devastating on the attack, Scipio devised a new way to counter them. Though tough and strong, the elephants could not turn when they charged. Using this knowledge, he formed his infantry in separate units with gaps in between. These were filled with velites (light troops) which could move to allow the elephants to pass through.



It was his goal to allow the elephants to charge through these gaps thus minimizing the damage they could inflict. As anticipated, Hannibal opened the battle by ordering his elephants to charge the Roman lines. Moving forward, they were engaged by the Roman velites who drew them through the gaps in the Roman lines and out of the battle. With Hannibal's elephants neutralized, Scipio sent forward his cavalry. Attacking on both wings, the Roman and Numidian horsemen overwhelmed their opposition and pursued them from the field.


Cort, Cornelis, 1533?-1578.
Print showing Scipio Africanus on horseback with Roman soldiers engaging Hannibal, riding a war elephant, during the battle of Zama.
Engraving
43.7 x 58 cm 

Cornelis Cort (c. 1533 – c. 17 March 1578[1]) was a Dutch engraver and draughtsman. He spent the last 12 years of his life in Italy, where he was known as Cornelio Fiammingo. His first known engravings were printed in Antwerp around 1553, though it is thought that he remained working in the Northern Netherlands. A letter (1567) from Dominicus Lampsonius to the artist Titian in fact described Cock as Cort's master. 

Cort moved to Venice and lived in the house of Titian in 1565 and 1566, where he produced engraving based on Titian's works. From Italy he wandered back to the Netherlands, but he returned to Venice soon after 1567, proceeding thence to Bologna and Rome, where he produced engravings from all the great masters of the time.

At Rome he founded the well-known school in which the simple line of Marcantonio was modified by a brilliant touch of the burin.

He visited Florence between 1569 and 1571 probably working for the Medici family and returned to Titian in Venice in 1571-1572. He spent the last year of his life in Rome, where he died. More

Though displeased by his cavalry's departure, Scipio began advancing his infantry. This was met by an advance from Hannibal. While Hannibal's mercenaries defeated the first Roman assaults, his men slowly began to be pushed back by Scipio's troops. As the first and second lines gave way, Hannibal's veteran's stood firm forcing the other Carthaginian troops to move outward to the flanks as they retreated. Extending his line to avoid being outflanked, Scipio pressed the attack against Hannibal's best troops.



With the battle surging back and forth, the Roman cavalry rallied and returned to the field. Charging the rear of Hannibal's position, the cavalry caused his lines to break. Pinned between two forces, the Carthaginians were routed and driven from the field.

As with many battles in this period, exact casualties are not known. Some sources claim that Hannibal's casualties numbered 20,000 killed, 11,000 wounded, and 15,000 taken prisoner, while the Romans lost around 1,500 and 5,000 wounded. Regardless of casualties, the defeat at Zama led to Carthage renewing its calls for peace. These were accepted by Rome, however the terms were harsher than those offered a year earlier. In addition to losing the majority of its empire, a substancial war indemnity was imposed and Carthage was effectively destroyed as a power.


The Battle of Zama, 202 BC, c.1585-90 (oil on canvas) Postcards, Greetings Cards, Art Prints, Canvas, Framed Pictures & Wall Art by Otto van Veen
Otto van Veen
The Battle of Zama, 202 BC, c.1585-90 
Oil on canvas


Otto van Veen, (c.1556 – 6 May 1629) was a painter, draughtsman, and humanist active primarily in Antwerp and Brussels in the late sixteenth and early seventeenth century. He is known for running a large studio in Antwerp, producing several emblem books, and for being, from 1594 or 1595 until 1598, Peter Paul Rubens's teacher.

Van Veen was born in Leiden around 1556, where his father had been Burgomaster. He studied for a time under Dominicus Lampsonius and Jean Ramey, before traveling to Rome around 1574 or 1575. He stayed there for about five years Returning to Brussels, he was court painter to the governor of the Southern Netherlands, Alexander Farnese, Duke of Parma until 1592, and then active in Antwerp.

After becoming a master in the Guild of St. Luke in 1593, van Veen took numerous commissions for church decorations, including altarpieces for the Antwerp cathedral and a chapel in the city hall. He also organized his studio and workshop, which included Rubens. The artist later served as dean in two prominent organizations in the city, the Guild of St. Luke in 1602, and the Romanists in 1606.


In the seventeenth century, van Veen often worked for the Archdukes Albert and Isabella, but never as their court painter. Later paintings include a series of twelve paintings depicting the battles of the Romans and the Batavians, based on engravings he had already published of the subject, for the Dutch States General. More


Battle of Zama by caastel

There has been a traditional simplifying view that Hannibal encircled his enemy at Cannae and was defeated by the same tactics at Zama. This though proves to be incorrect. Hannibal was not outgeneraled at Zama. For Scipio won the battle of Zama by winning the cavalry duel, due to superior numbers.


The Roman Army repulses the Carthaginian elephants at Zama, turning them back on their own lines.


If there is an irony in Hannibal's defeat at Zama though, it is that he was vanquished by the very thing he had sought to provoke with his invasion of Italy. Had he sought to inspire the tribes of Italy to rise against Roman rule, he had failed. Yet it was exactly the addition of the rebel Masinissa's Numidian cavalry to Scipio's forces which effectively sealed Hannibal's defeat.

Acknowledgment: About.com, Roman Empire

24 Works, The world's first supermodel, Phryne

Phryne at the Poseidonia in Eleusis, c. 1889
Henryk Siemiradzki
Oil on Canvas
Russian Museum, St. Petersburg, Russia

Phryne's real name was Mnēsarétē ("commemorating virtue"), but owing to her yellowish complexion she was called Phrýnē ("toad"). This was a nickname frequently given to other courtesans and prostitutes as well. The exact dates of her birth and death are unknown, but she was born about 371 BC. In that year Thebes razed Thespiae not long after the battle of Leuctra and expelled its inhabitants.


The Hémicycle
Paul Delaroche (1797–1856)
Oil and wax on wall

This painting replicates Delaroche's most famous work, a mural in oils and wax (1836-41) in the auditorium of the École des Beaux-Arts in Paris, France's most prestigious art school. Delaroche's pupil, Charles Béranger, is thought to have begun this replica in 1841, but the master completed it following his pupil's death in 1853. It provided a basis for L.-P. Henriquel-Dupont's engraving reproducing the composition.



Central portion of "The Hémicycle"
Phryne at the Festival of Poseidon
Paul Delaroche
Oil and wax on wall
École nationale supérieure des Beaux-Arts, Paris

Athenaeus Naucratita, a Greek rhetorician and grammarian, provides many anecdotes about Phryne. He praises her beauty, writing that on the occasion of the festivals of the Eleusinia and Poseidonia she would let down her hair and step naked into the sea. This would have inspired the painter Apelles to create his famous picture of Aphrodite Anadyomene (Rising from the Sea also portrayed at times as Venus Anadyomene). Supposedly the sculptor Praxiteles, who was also her lover, used her as the model for the statue of the Aphrodite of Knidos.



Praxiteles of Athens
The Aphrodite of Knidos


The Aphrodite of Knidos was one of the most famous works of the ancient Greek sculptor Praxiteles of Athens (4th century BC). It and its copies are often referred to as the Venus Pudica ("modest Venus") type, on account of her covering her naked pubis with her right hand. Variants of the Venus Pudica (suggesting an action to cover the breasts) are the Venus de' Medici or the Capitoline Venus.

Praxiteles produced two more statues for her, a statue of Eros which was consecrated in the temple of Thespiae 

Praxiteles Giving Phryne his Statue of Cupid
Angelica Kauffmann
Swiss, 1741-1807
Praxiteles Giving Phryne his Statue of Cupid, 1794
Oil on canvas
43.3 x 48.6 cm (17 1/16 x 19 1/8 inches)

and a statue of Phryne herself which was made of solid gold and consecrated in the temple of Delphi. 

Purple and Gold: Phryne the Superb! - Builder of Temples
James McNeill Whistler (11 July 1834 - 17 July 1903)
Purple and Gold: Phryne the Superb! - Builder of Temples
Oil
Date: 1898.01
236 x 137 mm (9 1/4" x 5 3/8")

Athenaeus alleges she was so rich that she offered to fund the rebuilding of the walls of Thebes, which had been destroyed by Alexander the Great in 336 BC, on the condition that the words "Destroyed by Alexander, restored by Phryne the courtesan" be inscribed upon them.

The best known event in Phryne's life is her trial. Athenaeus writes that she was prosecuted for a capital charge of impiety, and defended by the orator Hypereides, who was one of her lovers. When it seemed as if the verdict would be unfavourable, Hypereides removed Phryne's robe and bared her breasts before the judges to arouse their pity. 

File:Jean-Léon Gérôme, Phryne revealed before the Areopagus (1861) - 01.jpg
Phryne revealed before the Areopagus (1861)
Jean-Léon Gérôme
Oil on canvas
80 × 128 cm (31.5 × 50.4 in)
Kunsthalle Hamburg

Her beauty instilled the judges with a superstitious fear, who could not bring themselves to condemn "a prophetess and priestess of Aphrodite" to death. They decided to acquit her out of pity.

File:Jose Frappa - Phryne.jpg
Phryne, c. 1904
Jose Frappa
Oil on canvas
Musée d'Orsay

Due to her beauty, she also inspired much later works:

Franz Von Stuck - Phryne
Franz von Stuck, 1863-1928
Phryne, c.1917/18 
Greek hetaera, 4th C BC., accused of atheism; narrator Hypereides achieves her acquittal by unveiling her body. Oil on paperboard
51 x 32,5cm

File:Phryne seduces the philosopher Xenocrates, Angelica Kauffmann 1794.jpg
Angelica Kauffman, (1741–1807)
Phrine seduces Xenocrates, 1794
Oil on canvas

Salvator Rosa, (1615 - 1673)
Phryne Tempting Xenocrate

The famous Greek courtesan Phryne (4thC BC fl.) reclining invitingly to left against a cushion, pointing and looking towards the philosopher Xenocrates (396 BC - 314 BC), who draws back. Phryne tested the legendary self-control of Xenocrates, one of Plato's successors and scholarch/rector of the Academy 339-314 BC. 

Joseph Mallord William Turner ‘Phryne Going to the Public Baths as Venus: Demosthenes Taunted by Aeschines’, exhibited 1838
Joseph Mallord William Turner, 1775–1851
Phryne Going to the Public Baths as Venus, c. 1838

Oil paint on canvas
1930 x 1651 mm
Tate

Phryne at Eleusis
William Shackleton
Phryne at Eleusis, c. 1907
Oil on canvas
100.5 x 140.5 cm

Bronze, 27"x15", 1948
Albert Wein
Phryne Before the Judges, c. 1948
Bronze
27″x15″

1
ANTONIO PARREIRAS, (Brazilian, 1860- 1937)
PHRYNE, c. 1909
Oil on canvas
48 1/2 in. x 72 1/2 in.

This painting was exhibited at the Salon Societe-Nationale des Beaux-Arts in Paris in 1910

James Pradier, (1790-1852)
Phryné remettant ses voiles
Sand cast bronze, 1845.
H. 39.8 cm (15 ½ in.)
Louvre Museum

Joseph Mallord William Turner ‘Study for a Composition: ?Phryne’, c.1804–10
Joseph Mallord William Turner, (1775–1851)
Study for a Composition: Phryne c.1804–10
Pen and ink on paper
138 x 300 mm
Tate

Joseph Mallord William Turner, (1775–1851)
Study for a Composition: Phryne c.1802–10
Pen and ink on paper
140 x 302 mm
Tate

Percival Ball, (17 Feb 1845 - 04 Apr 1900)
Phryne before Praxiteles, 1900
on the facade of the Art Gallery of New South Wales
Bronze relief
Singer and Sons, Foundry
2620.0 x 3440.0 cm

Phryne Posing for Praxiteles | by Dovid100
Percival Ball, (17 Feb 1845 - 04 Apr 1900)
Phryne before Praxiteles, 1900

Detail, see above

Louis Lagrenée THAT courtesan Phryne before their judges., Auction 846 Ancient Art, Lot 1345
Louis Lagrenée
Courtesan Phryne before their judges
Watercolor and pen and brown ink over white heightening on paper
H 17.2; B 19.3 cm

Phryne (w/c, pastel, pencil with pen and ink on paper) Posters & Prints by English School
English School
Phryne
Bridgeman Art Library
pastel, pencil with pen and ink on paper

Phryne Before the Areopagus
Jean-Baptiste Deshays (French, Colleville 1729–1765 Paris)
Phryne Before the Areopagus, mid-18th century
Pen and brown ink, brown wash, heightened with white, over black chalk
18 11/16 x 23 11/16 in. (47.5 x 60.2)
The Metropolitan Museum of Art

Patric Richmond Nicholas
Phryne Before the Areopagus








Acknowledgment: Wikipedia