Sunday, October 16, 2016

37 Carvings - Carvings & Sculpture from the Bible! 15 & 16th Century. With Footnotes -# 6

Jacopo Torni , called Florentino ( Florence , 1476 - Villena , 1526 )
The Entombment of Christ ( 1521-1526) 
The main altar of the Monastery of St. Jerome.

The frieze composition is based on an iconographic scheme dating back to at least the thirteenth century. Displaying a solid classical culture, the sculptor locks the figures in a closed and compact composition. Reducing the number of mourners is crucial in the final outcome of the composition. Limiting the number of actors is, moreover, strictly Orthodox; to distance himself from the Apocrypha and other non - canonical texts, common sources of inspiration for this sculpture theme. The pair of women who accompanied Joseph of Arimathea derived from the Gospel story of Matthew and Mark and Nicodemus of John. 

The image of Mary Magdalene arrogant, self - absorbed with a display of her long, golden hair. Exotic costumes worn by Joseph of Arimathea and Nicodemus refer to the tax Gothic tradition. The sorrowful face of the latter stands as a realistic characterization. In the image of Christ is shown the attenuated pain on his face, untouched by death,, keeping intact the classical ethos, and constituting a balanced compromise between the expressivism Nordic stamp and the beauty of the Christ of the Pieta by Michelangelo, with both arms hanging angled and whose fragile bone and muscle structure does not show any interest in the formalization of a canon clasicista'. More

Jacopo Torni (1476–1526), also known as Jacobo Fiorentin, L'Indaco, and Jacopo dell'Indaco, was an Italian (Florentine) painter. He was a student of Domenico Ghirlandaio (1449–1494), and the brother of painter Francesco Torni (1492–1560). Jacopo assisted Michelangelo in painting the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel in Rome). Jacopo is known to have collaborated with the painter Bernardino Pinturicchio (ca. 1452-1513). He died in Villena.

He also worked in the city of Granada for the Order of Friars Agustinos. He carved an image of Christ in 1520, known as Santo Cristo de San Agustin. He made another Christ preserved in the Church of the Convento de la Concepción, in the neighborhood of Albaicin , and a third crucifiction for the Monastery of the Incarnation in the same Granada. Anecdotally, the three crucifictions are preserved in the city of the Alhambra, guarded by the female branch of the Franciscan order.

Jacopo Florentino married Juana de Velasco, daughter of the sculptor Lopez de Velasco , and worked with her father in the Cathedral of Granada , particularly in the altarpiece of the Holy Cross of the Royal Chapel . In Granada also made a sculptural group, The Entombment of Christ , for the Convent of San Jeronimo (above), preserved in the Museum of Fine Arts in Granada . More

Alonso Cano (1653-1657) 
St. Joseph with the Child
Museum of Fine Arts.

Work by Alonso Cano (1653-1657) for the Convent of Santo Angel Custodio of Granada. In the transept of the convent church it was located this great sculpture, made in collaboration with Pedro de Mena. The convent was demolished in 1933 and years later the works enter the Museum of Fine Arts.

Alonzo Cano or Alonso Cano (19 March 1601 – 3 September 1667) was a Spanish painter, architect and sculptor born in Granada. He learned architecture from his father, Miguel Cano; painting in the academy of Juan del Castillo, and from Francisco Pacheco the teacher of Velázquez; and sculpture from Juan Martínez Montañés. As a sculptor, his most famous works are the Madonna and Child in the church of Lebrija (also called Nebrija, below), and the colossal figures of San Pedro and San Pablo.

Alonso Cano (1653-1657)
Madonna and Child
Church of Lebrija

He was made first royal architect, painter to Philip IV,[1][2] and instructor to the prince, Balthasar Charles, Prince of Asturias.[1] The King gave him the church preferment of a canon[1][2] of the Granada Cathedral (1652),[1] in order to take up a position as chief architect of the cathedral, where his main achievement in architecture was the façade, designed at the end of his life and erected to his design after his death.[citation needed]

He was notorious for his ungovernable temper; and it is said that once he risked his life by committing the then capital offence of dashing to pieces the statue of a saint, when in a rage with the purchaser who begrudged the price he demanded.[1] According to another story, he found his house robbed after coming home one evening, his wife murdered, and his Italian servant fled. Notwithstanding the presumption against the fugitive, the magistrates condemned Cano, because he was of a jealous temper. Upon this he fled to Valencia, but afterwards returned to Madrid, where he was put to the torture, which he endured without incriminating himself, and the king received him into favour.[3]

After the death of his wife he took Holy Orders[1] as a protection from farther prosecution, but still continued his professional pursuits. He died in 1667. In his last moments, when the priest held to him a crucifix, he told him to take it away; according to the Catholic Encyclopedia, this was because the priest gave the Sacrament to conversos.[1] Probably this version is spurius as many others about his life and temperament. More

 Saint Michael
Ivory, carved, partially painted and gilded
Hispano-Philippine school, 18th century
On a round profiled wooden base
Height: c. 32.5 cm

Depiction of the archangel as warrior with raised sword in his right hand. He is standing in triumphing gesture on the devil, depicted as a laying injured boy whose dragon feet are bound by a snake. The archangel Michael ranged in the christian art as leader of the heavenly host and conqueror of the devil, often in figure of a dragon. More

French Ivory, Bronze and Marble Crucifix , Circa 1898 
The carved figure mounted to an ormolu bordered verde antico backplate. 
Height: 13 in (33 cm) 

Wood, polychrome and gold painting, c.1700
On a rectangular plinth standing Maria with long, open hair
Draped in a gold, floor-length dress and a red, patterned cloak with the typical arrangement of the folds for the baroque time
The view is directed upwards, the right arm is slight raised to the right, the left hand holds a book
Height:100 cm

Rest on Flight to Egypt
Ivory, carved
Portuguese State of India, End 17th Century
14.3 x 9.6 x 0.5 cm

Saint Anthony of Padua with Jesus
Wood, carved, polychrome and gold painted, brass, c. 18th century
Height: 94.2 cm

The wood figure of Saint Anthony of Padua stands in slight contrapposto on a gilt, stepped socket. He wears the habit of the Franciscans with the typical tonsure as well as a brass nimbus. On the belt hanging a pouch and a rosary beads. He holds the Jesus child in his arms in front of his breast, on who he looks tender. More

Saint Anthony of Padua (Portuguese: Santo António), born Fernando Martins de Bulhões (1195 – 13 June 1231), also known as Anthony of Lisbon, was a Portuguese Catholic priest and friar of the Franciscan Order. He was born and raised by a wealthy family in Lisbon, Portugal, and died in Padua, Italy. Noted by his contemporaries for his forceful preaching, expert knowledge of scripture, and undying love and devotion to the poor and the sick, he was the second-most-quickly canonized saint after Peter of Verona. He was proclaimed a Doctor of the Church on 16 January 1946. He is also the patron saint of lost things. More

Juan de Juni, (1506–1577)
The burial of Christ, c. 1541-1545
Polychromed wood
Museo Nacional de Escultura, in Valladolid (Spain)

Juan de Juni, (1506–1577)
The burial of Christ, c. 1541-1545

Juan de Juni, (1506–1577)
The burial of Christ, c. 1541-1545

Juan de Juni (Fr. Jean de Joigny; c. 1507–1577) was a French–Spanish sculptor, who also worked as a painter and architect. He was born in Joigny, France, but began working in Italy, where he was first employed.In 1533 he went to live in León and Medina de Rioseco before moving to Valladolid in 1540. He was best known as a religious sculptor who incorporated great emotion into his figures. More

Juan de Juni, (1506–1577)
Piedad de Medina del Campo (Pieta), c. 1575. 
Museum of the Fairs of Medina del Campo

Juan de Juni, (1506–1577)
San Juan Bautista Villana, c. 1534
Museum of Polychrome Sculpture

Juan de Juni (Joigny, Burgundy 1506 Valladolid 1577)
BUST OF ECCE HOMO, c. 1540 and 1545
Polychromed wood
Diocesan and Cathedral Museum Valladolid

Workshop Brabant, Antwerp
Altarpiece of the Life of the Virgin (towards 1515-1520)
Convent of San Francisco. Valladolid.
Walnut wood
Colegio San Gregorio. Museo Nacional de Escultura. Valladolid

French Workshop
José de Arimathea (1504)
Polychromed wood
Colegio San Gregorio. National Sculpture Museum. Valladolid 

Joseph of Arimathea was, according to all four canonical Gospels, the man who donated his own prepared tomb for the burial of Jesus after Jesus' crucifixion. A number of stories that developed during the Middle Ages connect him with both Glastonbury, where he is supposed to have founded the earliest Christian oratory, and also with the Grail legend. More

Saint Nepomuk
Wood, carved, polychrome and gold painted
South Germany, 18th century
Height: ca. 57.5 cm

John of Nepomuk (o(c. 1345 – March 20, 1393) is the saint of Bohemia (Czech Republic), who was drowned in the Vltava river at the behest of Wenceslaus, King of the Romans and King of Bohemia. Later accounts state that he was the confessor of the queen of Bohemia and refused to divulge the secrets of the confessional. On the basis of this account, John of Nepomuk is considered the first martyr of the Seal of the Confessional, a patron against calumnies and, because of the manner of his death, a protector from floods and drowning. More

Michelangelo di Lodovico Buonarroti Simoni (1475 – 1564)
Madonna of the Stairs, c. 1491
Relief, Marble
56.7 cm × 40.1 cm (22.3 in × 15.8 in)
Casa Buonarroti

Madonna of the Stairs is the earliest extant work of Michelangelo. Carved in Relief, it represents Michelangelo's exploration of quattrocento (early Renaissance) techniques. The Madonna's face is in classical profile and she sits on a square block, Michelangelo's hallmark. He chose not to show the Child's face but placed him in an odd position, either nursing or sleeping and encased in drapery, suggesting protection. In the background, four youths handle a long cloth, identified either the one used to lower Christ from the cross or a shroud. 

In Madonna of the Stairs, Michelangelo used the chisel more as a pencil to create the illusion of the Madonna's gown as it barely rises from the background. By subtly dissolving the barrier between object and background, the artist introduces dimension and depth as mere suggestions. The classical Roman character of Mary's profile finds its roots in fifth-century Greek grave designs.  More

The work is an obvious homage to the stiacciato of Donatello , as Vasari also noted, both in technique and size. More

Michelangelo di Lodovico Buonarroti Simoni (March 1475 – 18 February 1564), was an Italian sculptor, painter, architect, poet, and engineer of the High Renaissance who exerted an unparalleled influence on the development of Western art. Despite making few forays beyond the arts, his versatility in the disciplines he took up was of such a high order that he is often considered a contender for the title of the archetypal Renaissance man, along with contemporary rival and fellow Florentine Medici client, Leonardo da Vinci.

A number of Michelangelo's works in painting, sculpture, and architecture rank among the most famous in existence. His output in every field of interest was prodigious; given the sheer volume of surviving correspondence, sketches, and reminiscences taken into account, he is the best-documented artist of the 16th century.

Two of his best-known works, the Pietà and David, were sculpted before the age of thirty. Despite his low opinion of painting, Michelangelo also created two of the most influential frescoes in the history of Western art: the scenes from Genesis on the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel in Rome, and The Last Judgment on its altar wall. As an architect, Michelangelo pioneered the Mannerist style at the Laurentian Library. At the age of 74, he succeeded Antonio da Sangallo the Younger as the architect of St. Peter's Basilica. Michelangelo transformed the plan, the western end being finished to Michelangelo's design, the dome being completed after his death with some modification.

In his lifetime he was also often called Il Divino ("the divine one"). One of the qualities most admired by his contemporaries was his terribilità, a sense of awe-inspiring grandeur, and it was the attempts of subsequent artists to imitate Michelangelo's impassioned and highly personal style that resulted in Mannerism, the next major movement in Western art after the High Renaissance. More

Donatello, Donato di Niccolò di Betto Bardi, 1386–1466
Madonna of the Clouds
Stone; marble
33.1 x 32 cm (13 1/16 x 12 5/8 in.)
Museum of Fine Arts, Boston

Donatello was one of the most innovative sculptors in the history of European sculpture. He carved this image in flattened relief (rilievo schiacciato), a technique, which he invented, in which a sculptor could create the illusion of volumetric forms set into deep, continuous space with the most subtle and shallow carving. The Madonna sits as if on the ground, to convey the idea of humility, but Donatello sets her in the clouds, so she also becomes Queen of Heaven. A feeling of weighty foreboding is expressed in the Madonna’s somber profile, which seems to look into the Christ Child’s tragic future. More

Donato di Niccolò di Betto Bardi (c. 1386 – 13 December 1466), better known as Donatello (Italian: [donaˈtɛllo]), was an early Renaissance sculptor from Florence. He studied classical sculpture, and used this to develop a fully Renaissance style in sculpture, whose periods in Rome, Padua and Siena introduced to other parts of Italy a long and productive career. He worked in stone, bronze, wood, clay, stucco and wax, and had several assistants, with four perhaps being a typical number. Though his best-known works were mostly statues in the round, he developed a new, very shallow, type of bas-relief for small works, and a good deal of his output was larger architectural reliefs. More

Sally James Farnham, 1898 - 1943
bronze, dark green patina
Height: 19 1/4 inches (49 cm)
Length: 15 3/4 inches (40 cm)
Private Collection

Sally James Farnham, 1898 - 1943

Michael Reed, the creator of the Sally James Farnham Catalogue Raisonne Project (, writes of Farnham's sculpture Joan of Arc, "It is probable that she was vying for the commission of a heroic monument meant for Riverside Drive in New York City.  That commission was eventually awarded to Anna Hyatt Huntington.  Farnham exhibited this work at both the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts Exhibition and the National Academy of Design Exhibition in 1922.  The original plaster model was sold at her estate sale in 1943." More

Sally James Farnham was an American sculptor born Ogdensburg, New York November 26, 1869 into a prominent local family surrounded by military and political figures. Her paternal grandfather, Amaziah Bailey James, served as a Congressman from 1877 to 1881, and her father, Colonel Edward C. James, was a Civil War veteran and a noted trial lawyer in New York City. When James was 10 years old her mother passed away. Soon after traveled the world with her father, who often encouraged her to do various activities that were atypical for young women in the period, such as hunting and horsemanship. Her familiarity with these activities later proved useful in her sculpting career. More

Holy Barbara with Chalice
Wood, polychrome and gold painting
South Germany, 16th/ 17th century
Height: 74.5 cm
Private Collection

Representing often with a cup, the depiction of the Holy Barbara wears a floor-length dark green and black dress as well as a red coat. Her head and view are directed upwards to the right side. Her long open and curled hair, which is crested by a crown, is falling fluent behind. More

Saint Barbara, known in the Eastern Orthodox Church as the Great Martyr Barbara, was an early Christian saint and martyr. Accounts place her in the 3rd century in Nicomedia, present-day Turkey or in Heliopolis of Phoenicia, present-day Baalbek, Lebanon. Her name can be traced to the 7th century, and veneration of her was common, especially in the East, from the 9th century.

Barbara, the daughter of a rich pagan who carefully guarded and kept her locked up in a tower in order to preserve her from the outside world. Having secretly become a Christian, she rejected an offer of marriage that she received through him.

Before going on a journey, he commanded that a private bath-house be erected for her use near her dwelling. When her father returned, she acknowledged herself to be a Christian; upon this he drew his sword to kill her, but her prayers created an opening in the tower wall and she was miraculously transported to a mountain gorge, where two shepherds watched their flocks. Dioscorus, in pursuit of his daughter, was rebuffed by the first shepherd, but the second betrayed her and was turned to stone and his flock changed to locusts.

Dragged before the prefect of the province, Martinianus, who had her cruelly tortured, Barbara held true to her faith. During the night, the dark prison was bathed in light and new miracles occurred. Every morning her wounds were healed. Torches that were to be used to burn her went out as soon as they came near her. Finally she was condemned to death by beheading. Her father himself carried out the death-sentence. However, as punishment for this, he was struck by lightning on the way home and his body was consumed by flame. Barbara was buried by a Christian, Valentinus, and her tomb became the site of miracles. More

Crucified Christ
Polychrome and gilt ivory Indo-Portuguese sculpture 
Rosewood cross, top with INRI inscription on ivory plaque and velvet lined plaque 
80x50,5 cm 
Late 18th, early 19th century
Private Collection

Our Lady with the Child
Ivory sculpture in the gothic manner 
24 cm
Europe, 19th century
Private Collection

Our Lady of the Conception
Polychrome and gilt Indo-Portuguese sculpture 
16 cm
18th century
Private Collection

The Immaculate Conception, according to the teaching of the Catholic Church, was the conception of the Blessed Virgin Mary in the womb of her mother, Saint Anne, free from original sin by virtue of the foreseen merits of her son Jesus Christ. The Catholic Church teaches that Mary was conceived by normal biological means, but God acted upon her soul (keeping her "immaculate") at the time of her conception.

The Immaculate Conception is commonly and mistakenly taken to mean the conception of Mary's son Jesus Christ in her own womb, and the Virgin Birth of Jesus. These are covered by the Doctrine of Incarnation, while the Immaculate Conception deals with the conception of Mary herself, not that of her son. More

Our Lady with the Child
Polychrome terracotta sculpture
14,5 cm
Portugal, 18th century
17th century 
Private Collection

Our Lady with the Child
Polychrome ivory Indo-Portuguese sculpture 
14 cm
17th century
Private Collection

Saint Anne teaching Our Lady how to read
Polychrome and gilt wood sculpture 
Ivory head and hands 
25 cm
Europe, 18th century 
Private Collection

Our Lady of Sorrows
Polychrome ivory Indo-Portuguese sculpture 
17 cm
Late 17th, early 18th century
Private Collection

Our Lady of Sorrows, the Sorrowful Mother or Mother of Sorrows, and Our Lady of Piety, Our Lady of the Seven Sorrows or Our Lady of the Seven Dolours are names by which the Blessed Virgin Mary is referred to in relation to sorrows in her life. As Mater Dolorosa, it is also a key subject for Marian art in the Catholic Church.

The Seven Sorrows of Mary are a popular Roman Catholic devotion. In common religious Catholic imagery, the Blessed Virgin Mary is portrayed in a sorrowful and lacrimating affect, with seven daggers piercing her heart, often bleeding. Devotional prayers that consist of meditation began to elaborate on her Seven Sorrows based on the prophecy of Simeon. Common examples of piety under this title are Servite rosary, or the Chaplet of the Seven Sorrows of Our Lady and the Seven Joys of Mary and more recently, "Sorrowful and Immaculate Heart of Mary". More

Saint Peter, (AD 30; d. between AD 64 and 68)
Polychrome and gilt ivory sculpture 
22,5 cm
18th century 
Private Collection

Saint Peter (AD 30; d. between AD 64 and 68), also known as Simon Peter, Simeon, or Simōn, according to the New Testament, was one of the Twelve Apostles of Jesus Christ, leaders of the early Christian Church. He is also the "Apostle of the Apostles", an honor 3rd-century theologian Hippolytus of Rome gave him, and the Roman Catholic Church considers him to be the first pope, ordained by Jesus in the "Rock of My Church" dialogue in Matthew 16:18. The ancient Christian churches all venerate Peter as a major saint and associate him with founding the Church of Antioch and later the Church in Rome, but differ about the authority of his various successors in present-day Christianity.

Originally a fisherman, he played a leadership role and was with Jesus during events witnessed by only a few apostles, such as the Transfiguration. According to the gospels, Peter confessed Jesus as the Messiah, was part of Jesus's inner circle, thrice denied Jesus and wept bitterly once he realised his deed, and preached on the day of Pentecost.

According to Christian tradition, Peter was crucified in Rome under Emperor Nero Augustus Caesar. It is traditionally held that he was crucified upside down at his own request, since he saw himself unworthy to be crucified in the same way as Jesus. Tradition holds that he was crucified at the site of the Clementine Chapel. More

Our Lady of the Assumption
Polychrome and gilt wood sculpture 
Glass eyes 
 54 cm
Portugal, 18th century
Private Collection

The Assumption of Mary into Heaven. When Jesus died on the cross, he gave his mother to his apostle John. That means that he wanted Mary to treat John as her son, and John to treat Mary as his mother and take care of her. Mary moved into John's home, where he said Mass each day. So Mary was close to her Son in the Blessed Sacrament, even though He had ascended into Heaven. 

Mary's love for God and Jesus grew even stronger than it had been when Jesus had been present on earth. She grew more holy every day. People came to visit her, she was kind and patient with everyone. Saint Luke (who wrote the Gospel of Saint Luke) painted a picture of her during this time. The portrait of 'Our Lady of Perpetual Help" which was painted centuries later, used Saint Luke's portrait as a model of what Mary looked like. 

Finally when she was very old, it was time for Mary to die. She had enough time to say goodbye to all the apostles before she died. The grieving apostles took her body to a tomb near the one that Jesus was laid in. They covered her with a white shroud and laid her to rest in the tomb. 

But Mary's body didn't stay there. Jesus came to her and took her body and soul into heaven to be with Him. Mary was the Immaculate Conception - the only person except Jesus who had been born without the stain of Original Sin,the disobedience of Adam and Eve. God and Jesus would not let the body of the Mother of God decay. This was her reward for her love of God and her years of faithful prayers and suffering. More

Our Lady
Carved, gilt and polychrome wood sculpture 
Richly decorates mantle and clothes with floral pattern and applied lace 
The figure is standing on a cloud with cherubs and crescent 
Carved and marbled wood base 
Silver halo and crown
73 cm
Portugal, 18th century
Private Collection

Saint Francis Borgia
Polychrome and gilt wood sculpture 
Silver halo 
32,5 cm
Portugal, 18th century
Private Collection

Saint Francis Borgia, S.J., 4th Duke of Gandía, (28 October 1510 – 30 September 1572) was a Grandee of Spain, a Spanish Jesuit, and third Superior General of the Society of Jesus. He was canonized on 20 June 1670 by Pope Clement X. He was born in Duchy of Gandía, Valencia. His father was Juan Borgia, 3rd Duke of Gandía, the son of Giovanni Borgia, the son of Pope Alexander VI (Rodrigo Borgia). 

Although as a child he was very pious and wished to become a monk, his family sent him instead to the court of Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor (who was also King Charles I of Spain), where he was welcomed as a kinsman. He distinguished himself there, accompanying the Emperor on several campaigns.

In September 1529, he married a Portuguese noblewoman in Madrid, Leonor de Castro Mello y Meneses. They had eight children. In 1539, he convoyed the corpse of Isabella of Portugal, Philip II of Spain's mother, to her burial place in Granada. In that same year (1539), he became Viceroy of Catalonia, replacing Fadrique de Portugal y Noroña, though he was only 29.

In 1543 upon the death of his father, Francis became the 4th Duke of Gandía. Francis’ diplomatic abilities came into question when his attempt to arrange a marriage between Prince Philip and the Princess of Portugal failed, thus ending an attempt to bring these two countries together and resulting in his retirement. By then 33 years old he had retired to his native place and devoted himself to religious activities. More

Saint Vicente
Polychrome and gilt wood sculpture 
Silver halo
18 cm
Portugal, 18th century
Private Collection

Vincent Ferrer, O.P., (Valencian: Sant Vicent Ferrer) (23 January 1350 – 5 April 1419) was a Valencian Dominican friar, who gained acclaim as a missionary and a logician. He is honored as a saint of the Roman Catholic Church.

Vincent was the fourth child of the nobleman Guillem Ferrer, who came from Palamós, and his Spanish wife, Constança Miquel. Legends surround his birth. It was said that his father was told in a dream by a Dominican friar that his son would be famous throughout the world. His mother is said never to have experienced pain when she gave birth to him. He was named after St. Vincent Martyr, the patron saint of Valencia. He would fast on Wednesdays and Fridays and he loved the Passion of Christ very much. He would help the poor and distribute alms to them. He began his classical studies at the age of eight, his study of theology and philosophy at fourteen.

Four years later, at the age of nineteen, Ferrer entered the Order of Preachers, commonly called the Dominican Order, in England also known as Blackfriars. As soon as he had entered the novitiate of the Order, though, he experienced temptations urging him to leave. Even his parents pleaded with him to do so and become a secular priest. He prayed and practiced penance to overcome these trials. Thus he succeeded in completing the year of probation and advancing to his profession.

For a period of three years, he read solely Sacred Scripture and eventually committed it to memory. He published a treatise on Dialectic Suppositions after his solemn profession, and in 1379 was ordained a Catholic priest at Barcelona. He eventually became a Master of Sacred Theology and was commissioned by the Order to deliver lectures on philosophy. He was then sent to Barcelona and eventually to the University of Lleida, where he earned his doctorate in theology. More

Santiago Pilgrim
Polychrome and gilt wood sculpture 
68 cm
Spain, late 18th, early 19th century
Private Collection

The Camino de Santiago also known by the English names Way of St. James, St. James's Way, St. James's Path, St. James's Trail, Route of Santiago de Compostela, and Road to Santiago, is the name of any of the pilgrimage routes, known as pilgrim ways, to the shrine of the apostle St. James the Great in the Cathedral of Santiago de Compostela in Galicia in northwestern Spain, where tradition has it that the remains of the saint are buried. Many take up this route as a form of spiritual path or retreat for their spiritual growth. More

Child Jesus as the Good Shepherd
Sleeping Child wearing sheep, right arm on a gourd holding the head; left arm holding a sheep
8,5 cm
Indo-Portuguese sculpture of the late 17th, early 18th century 
Private Collection

Saint Rita of Cascia
Ivory Indo-Portuguese sculpture with traces of polychromy 
19 cm
18th century
Private Collection

Saint Rita of Cascia (Born Margherita Lotti 1381 – May 22, 1457) was an Italian widow and Augustinian nun. She is venerated as a saint in the Roman Catholic Church. Rita was married at an early age. The marriage lasted for eighteen years, during which she is remembered for her Christian values as a model wife and mother who made efforts to convert her husband from his abusive behavior. Upon the murder of her husband by another feuding family, she sought to dissuade her sons from revenge.

She subsequently joined an Augustinian community of religious sisters, where she was known both for practicing mortification of the flesh and for the efficacy of her prayers. Various miracles are attributed to her intercession, and she is often portrayed with a bleeding wound on her forehead, which is understood to indicate a partial stigmata.

Pope Leo XIII canonized Rita on May 24, 1900. Her feast day is celebrated on May 22nd. At her canonization ceremony she was bestowed the title of Patroness of Impossible Causes, while in many Catholic countries, Rita came to be known to be as the patroness of abused wives and heartbroken women. More

Saint Francis Xavier, S.J. (7 April 1506 – 3 December 1552)
Polychrome and gilt ivory sculpture 
Metal halo and wood base 
21,5 cm
18th century
Private Collection

Saint Francis Xavier, S.J. (7 April 1506 – 3 December 1552), was a Navarrese-Basque Roman Catholic missionary, born in Javier, Kingdom of Navarre (now part of Spain), and a co-founder of the Society of Jesus. He was a companion of St. Ignatius of Loyola and one of the first seven Jesuits who took vows of poverty and chastity at Montmartre, Paris in 1534. He led an extensive mission into Asia, mainly in the Portuguese Empire of the time and was influential in evangelization work, most notably in India. He also was the first Christian missionary to venture into Japan, Borneo, the Maluku Islands, and other areas. In those areas, struggling to learn the local languages and in the face of opposition, he had less success than he had enjoyed in India. Xavier was about to extend his missionary preaching to China but died in Shangchuan Island shortly before he could do so.

He was beatified by Pope Paul V on 25 October 1619 and canonized by Pope Gregory XV on 12 March 1622. In 1624 he was made co-patron of Navarre alongside Santiago. Known as the "Apostle of the Indies," and the "Apostle of Japan", he is considered to be one of the greatest missionaries since St. Paul. In 1927, Pope Pius XI published the decree "Apostolicorum in Missionibus" naming St. Francis Xavier, along with St. Thérèse of Lisieux, co-patron of all foreign missions. He is now co-patron saint of Navarre with San Fermin. The Day of Navarre (Día de Navarra) in Spain marks the anniversary of Saint Francis Xavier's death, on 3 December 1552. More

Acknowledgement: Veritas
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