Monday, October 10, 2016

06 Paintings, 15 C. scenes from the Bible, by The Old Masters With Footnotes. 29

Hispano-Flemish School
Last Supper, Mid 15th C.
Tempera on twill, relined 
Burgos/Palencia, Spain, mid-15th century 
70 x 108 cm
Private Collection

The Last Supper is the final meal that, in the Gospel accounts, Jesus shared with his Apostles in Jerusalem before his crucifixion. The Last Supper provides the scriptural basis for the Eucharist, also known as "Holy Communion" or "The Lord's Supper".

Hispano-Flemish School
Last Supper, Mid 15th C.
Detail

The First Epistle to the Corinthians contains the earliest known mention of the Last Supper. The four canonical Gospels all state that the Last Supper took place towards the end of the week, after Jesus' triumphal entry into Jerusalem and that Jesus and his Apostles shared a meal shortly before Jesus was crucified at the end of that week. During the meal Jesus predicts his betrayal by one of the Apostles present, and foretells that before the next morning, Peter will deny knowing him.

Hispano-Flemish School
Last Supper, Mid 15th C.
Detail

The three Synoptic Gospels and the First Epistle to the Corinthians include the account of the institution of the Eucharist in which Jesus takes bread, breaks it and gives it to the Apostles, saying: "This is my body which is given for you". The Gospel of John does not include this episode, but tells of Jesus washing the feet of the Apostles, giving the new commandment "to love one another as I have loved you", and has a detailed farewell discourse by Jesus, calling the Apostles who follow his teachings "friends and not servants", as he prepares them for his departure.


Scholars have looked to the Last Supper as the source of early Christian Eucharist traditions. Others see the account of the Last Supper as derived from 1st-century eucharistic practice as described by Paul in the mid-50s. More

School Of Burgos, Fray Alonso de Zamora
Miracle Of San Miguel, End of 15th C
Oil on panel
76 x 47 cm
Private Collection

Depiction of a miracle scene with San Miguel and a pilgrim at Monte Gargano. The transmitted manifestations of the Archangel Michael are considered the first and most famous in the Western World and still give cause to many pilgrimages to the Monte Gargano in Apulia, where there is one of the most important sanctuaries of Michael in Europe. More

School Of Burgos, Fray Alonso de Zamora
Miracle Of San Miguel, End of 15th C
Detail

The present panel depicts a miracle scene with San Miguel and a pilgrim at Monte Gargano and is a typical example of the School of Burgos. Following Flemish painting, that deeply influenced Castilian painters in the late 15th century, the present composition is characterized through its fine modeling of the figures, their staggered arrangement and the delicate depth effects of the landscape, requiring a solid knowledge of the perspective.

School Of Burgos, Fray Alonso de Zamora
Miracle Of San Miguel, End of 15th C
Detail

An early certificate by José Gudiol, Instituto Amatller de Arte Hispanico, Barcelona, dated 06.12.1979, states an artist named ‘Maestro de Ameyugo’, who is probably identical with the ‘Maestro de Oña’ or Fray Alonso de Zamora. This painter was first mentioned among documents of the Benedictine monastery of Oña in 17.02.1476. it is assumed that this painter owned a workshop in Oña and was regularly commissioned for works on behalf of the monastery.

More recent comparisons with the paintings by Diego de la Cruz (f. 1482-1500) and other works from the Museum of Burgos have also proven that this panel must have been painted by an artist active within the School of Burgos. More

School Of Burgos,  Fray Alonso de Zamora
Apparition Of San Miguel, End of 15th C.
 Oil on panel
75.5 x 47.5 cm 
Private Collection

The present panel depicts the Archangel standing on the Monte Gargano and is a typical example of the School of Burgos. 

School Of Burgos,  Fray Alonso de Zamora
Apparition Of San Miguel, End of 15th C.
Detail

School Of Burgos,  Fray Alonso de Zamora
Apparition Of San Miguel, End of 15th C.
Detail

Spanish-Portuguese School
Ecce Homo & Pilatus, c. 1530/40
Oil on panel
81 x 22 cm 
Private Collection

The present panel was originally organized as a counterpart to another panel and probably belonged to an altar triptych for private devotion in an oratory or in a domestic setting. A typical devotional painting, the composition shows the Ecce Homo scene that is a classical component of cycles illustrating the Passion of Christ. More

Spanish-Portuguese School
Ecce Homo & Pilatus, c. 1530/40
Detail

Spanish-Portuguese School
Jesus At The Column, c. 1530/40
Oil on panel 
81 x 22 cm
Private Collection

A typical devotional painting, the composition shows Jesus as Man of Sorrows – a subject that can clearly be put into the context of the Passion of Christ. Although the identity of the artist has not yet been established, we can say that the painter was deeply inspired by Flemish trends, whereas he also picked up characteristics of the Spanish-Portuguese style around 1530/40. The Portuguese miniaturist and illuminator António da Hollanda (c. 1480/1500-1557) is a good example for artists who met this category. More

Spanish-Portuguese School
Jesus At The Column, c. 1530/40
Detail

The Flagellation of Christ, sometimes known as Christ at the Column or the Scourging at the Pillar, is a scene from the Passion of Christ very frequently shown in Christian art, in cycles of the Passion or the larger subject of the Life of Christ. It is the fourth station of the modern alternate Stations of the Cross, and a Sorrowful Mystery of the Rosary. The column to which Christ is normally tied, and the rope, scourge, whip or birch are elements in the Arma Christi. The Basilica di Santa Prassede in Rome, claimed to possess the original column. More

Circle of Frans Francken (1581-1642)
Bible Story, pres. 17th C.
Oil on wood
53 x 117.2 cm
Private Collection

The painting made by the circle of the Flemish painter Frans Francken the Younger, shows presumably the Bible story of Jacob and Esau – with a view of an idyllic landscape and animals at the left side of the horizontal format. More

Jacob and Esau. The Book of Genesis speaks of the relationship between Jacob and Esau, focusing on Esau's loss of his birthright to Jacob and the conflict that had spawned between their descendant nations because of Jacob's deception of their aged and blind father, Isaac, in order to receive Esau's birthright/blessing from Isaac.

This conflict was paralleled by the affection the parents had for their favored child: "Now Isaac loved Esau, because he did eat of his venison, and Rebekah loved Jacob." (Genesis 25:28). Even since conception, their conflict was foreshadowed: "And the children struggled together within her; and she said, If it be so, why am I thus? And she went to enquire of the Lord. And the Lord said unto her, Two nations are in thy womb, and two manner of people shall be separated from thy bowels; and the one people shall be stronger than the other people; and the elder shall serve the younger." (Genesis 25:22–23)

This passage in Genesis 25:26 is as if Jacob was seemingly trying to pull Esau back into the womb so that he could be firstborn. The grasping of the heel is also a reference to deceptive behavior. More

Circle of Frans Francken (1581-1642)
Bible Story, pres. 17th C.
Detail

Frans Francken the Younger (Antwerp, 1581 – Antwerp, 6 May 1642) was a Flemish painter and the best-known member of the large Francken family of artists. He played an important role in the development of Flemish art in the first half of the 17th century through his innovations in genre painting and introduction of new subject matter. Francken was born in Antwerp where he trained with his father Frans Francken the Elder. He may also have trained with his uncle Hieronymus Francken I in Paris, together with his brother Hieronymus Francken II. He became a master in the Antwerp Guild of Saint Luke in 1605 and was deacon of the Guild in 1616. More

Acknowledgement: Auctionata AG

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