Tuesday, December 20, 2016

20 Carvings - Carvings & Sculpture from the Bible! 15 & 16th Century. With Footnotes -# 7

Lower Rhine, around 1530-1550
The Education of the Virgin, c. 1530-1550
Carved oak with traces of polychrome 
High. 85 cm; height 33 1/2 in.
Private Collection

Saint Anne Teaching Her Daughter the Virgin Mary to Read (The Education of the Virgin)

Northern France
Saint Martin sharing his cloak, c. 1520
Polychrome oak 
103 x 55 cm x 38 cm; 40 1/2 x 21 3/4 x 15 in.
Private Collection

St. Martin was born during the reign of the Emperor Constantine the Great, and was the son of a Roman soldier. He himself entered the army at an early age, and was sent into Gaul with a regiment of cavalry. Among his comrades he was loved for his mildness of temper and his generosity.

It happened that he was stationed in the city of Amiens, during a winter of unusual severity. There was great suffering among the poor, and many perished with cold and hunger. St. Martin was riding one day through the city gate, when he passed a naked beggar shivering on the pavement. Immediately he drew rein, and spoke pityingly to the poor creature. The young soldier was wearing over his coat of mail a long mantle. Slipping this garment from his shoulders he divided it with his sword, giving half to the beggar. More

Brabant, Antwerp,
St. Mary Jacobe teacher reading to her children, C. 1500-1510
AN ANTWERP, , OAK GROUP OF SAINTE MARIE-JACOBÉ TEACHING HER CHILDREN Carved oak with traces of polychrome 
36 x 24.5 x 7 cm; 14 1/4 x 9 1/2 x 2 3/4 in.
Private Collection

St. Mary Jacobe, the wife of Clopas, was one of various Marys named in the New Testament. Mary of Clopas is explicitly mentioned only in John 19:25, where she is among the women present at the Crucifixion of Jesus. More

The Golden Legend of Voragine, from the late medieval Europe, is a  biography of saints or ecclesiastical leaders. In this source book, St.Mary Jacobe is mentioned again in the dispersion Maximin tale, where Mary Magdalene, her brother Lazarus, her sister Martha, Martha’s maid Martillam, blessed Cedonius and many other Christians, were herded by the unbelievers into a ship without pilot or rudder and sent out to sea so that they might all be drowned, but by God’s will they eventually landed at Marseille.  The Golden Legend goes on;  Mary and the others destroyed the temples of the idols in the city of Marseille and built churches to Christ on the sites.

Burgundy last third of the fifteenth century Pietà
A PIETÀ
Limestone with traces of polychrome 
69 x 50 x 25 cm; 27 by 19 2/3 by 9 3/4 in.
Private Collection

The Pietà is a subject in Christian art depicting the Virgin Mary cradling the dead body of Jesus, most often found in sculpture. As such, it is a particular form of the Lamentation of Christ, a scene from the Passion of Christ found in cycles of the Life of Christ. When Christ and the Virgin are surrounded by other figures from the New Testament, the subject is strictly called a Lamentation in English, although Pietà is often used for this as well, and is the normal term in Italian. More

Lorraine, second quarter of the fourteenth century
Virgin and Child 
Limestone 
102 x 45 x 23 cm; 40 1/4 x 17 3/5 x 9 in.
Private Collection

Northern Spanish, early 17th century
SAINT JOHN THE EVANGELIST
Gilt and polychromed pine
101cm., 39¾in.
Private Collection

The present figure was possibly part of a crucifixion group. With its frowning expression, dramatic pose and bulky, elaborately polychromed drapery. More

John the Evangelist is the name traditionally given to the author of the Gospel of John. Christians have traditionally identified him with John the Apostle, John of Patmos, and John the Presbyter, though this has been disputed by modern scholars.

Christian tradition says that John the Evangelist was John the Apostle. A historical figure, one of the "pillars" of the Jerusalem church after Jesus' death. He was one of the original twelve apostles and is thought to be the only one to have lived into old age and not be killed for his faith. John is associated with the city of Ephesus, where he is said to have lived and been buried. Some believe that he was exiled (around 95 AD) to the Aegean island of Patmos, where he wrote the Book of Revelation. More

He wrote to the seven Christian churches in Asia to warn them of various challenges and temptations that confront them, which have been revealed to him in a vision. He then relates several additional powerful visions concerning the Last Days and the Second Coming of Christ. More

Southern German or Austrian, 17th century
BISHOP SAINT, POSSIBLY SAINT NICHOLAS
Gilt and polychromed wood
93cm., 36 5/8 in
Private Collection

Saint Nicholas (15 March 270 – 6 December 343), also called Nikolaos of Myra, was a historic 4th-century Christian saint and Greek Bishop of Myra, in Asia Minor. Because of the many miracles attributed to his intercession, he is also known as Nikolaos the Wonderworker. His reputation evolved among the faithful, as was common for early Christian saints, and his legendary habit of secret gift-giving gave rise to the traditional model of Santa Claus through Sinterklaas.

The historical Saint Nicholas, as known from strict history: He was born at Patara, Lycia in Asia Minor. In his youth he made a pilgrimage to Egypt and the Palestine area. Shortly after his return he became Bishop of Myra and was later cast into prison during the persecution of Diocletian. He was released after the accession of Constantine and was present at the Council of Nicaea. 

He was buried in his church at Myra, and by the 6th century his shrine there had become well-known. In 1087 Italian sailors or merchants stole his alleged remains from Myra and took them to Bari, Italy; this removal greatly increased the saint’s popularity in Europe, and Bari became one of the most crowded of all pilgrimage centres. Nicholas’s relics remain enshrined in the 11th-century basilica of San Nicola at Bari. More

Circle of Guido Mazzoni (circa 1445-1518)
Italian, Bologna, late 15th/ early 16th century
MARY MAGDALENE
Polychromed terracotta
70cm., 27 1/2 in.
Private Collection

This poignant figure of a wailing Mary Magdalene would have once formed part of a terracotta group lamenting the Dead Christ. Such groups, characterised by contorted poses and a high level of emotion, flourished in Emilia-Romagna in the second half of the 15th century, led by Niccolo dell'Arca's famous masterpiece in the church of S. Maria della vita in Bologna. The present figure can be associated with the work of Niccolo's contemporary, Guido Mazzoni. More

MAZZONI, Guido, (b. ca. 1450, Modena, d. 1518, Modena) was an Italian sculptor, painter, mask-maker and festival director. Throughout his career he was associated with the stage, and known as a painter as well as a sculptor. He was brought up by a paternal uncle, Paganino Mazzoni, a Modenese notary and official of the Este bureaucracy. This connection with the ducal court of Ferrara throws some light on the artist's early training, which is otherwise obscure. A document of 1472 refers to him as a painter, and his first sculpture strongly echoes the figural style in Francesco del Cossa's frescoes (1466–the mid-1470s) at the Palazzo Schifanoia outside Ferrara. Mazzoni may have worked at the Palazzo Schifanoia in association with the stucco master Domenico di Paris, where he may have learnt to model papier-mâché props for the court masques that contemporary sources say he directed and designed. A related activity of these years was making the realistic and caricatural festival masks for which Modena was famous.

After 1480 he made an Adoration group which reflects the influence of Venetian painting. By 1489 he had moved to Naples where his most important work is a Lamentation group in the church of Monte Oliveto. In 1495 he accompanied Charles VIII to France, and in 1498 executed the tomb of Charles VIII in St-Denis (destroyed in 1793). In 1507 he returned briefly to Modena, but thereafter again worked in France, executing an equestrian statue of Louis XII at Blois and returning to Italy only on the death of Louis XII in 1515. In 1516 he is once more recorded in Modena, where he died in 1518. More


Spanish, 14th century
John the Evangelist
Stained cedar, on a modern wood and metal stand
61.5cm., 24 1/8 in
Private Collection

John the Evangelist, see above

Italian, probably 14th Century
John the Evangelist
polychromed wood
131cm., 51 1/2 in.
Private Collection

John the Evangelist, see above

Italian, early 16th century
SAINT GEORGE
Gilt and polychromed wood
99cm., 39in.
Private Collection

Saint George (circa 275/281 – 23 April 303 AD) was a soldier in the Roman army who later became venerated as a Christian martyr. His parents were Christians of Greek background; his father Gerontius was a Roman army official from Cappadocia and his mother Polychronia was from Lydda, Syria Palaestina. Saint George became an officer in the Roman army in the Guard of Diocletian, who ordered his death for failing to recant his Christian faith.

In the fully developed Western version of the Saint George Legend, a dragon, or crocodile, makes its nest at the spring that provides water for the city of "Silene" (perhaps modern Cyrene in Libya or the city of Lydda in Palistine, depending on the source). Consequently, the citizens have to dislodge the dragon from its nest for a time, to collect water. To do so, each day they offer the dragon at first a sheep, and if no sheep can be found, then a maiden is the best substitute for one. The victim is chosen by drawing lots. One day, this happens to be the princess. The monarch begs for her life to be spared, but to no avail. She is offered to the dragon, but then Saint George appears on his travels. He faces the dragon, protects himself with the sign of the Cross, slays the dragon, and rescues the princess. The citizens abandon their ancestral paganism and convert to Christianity. Mor
Rhenish, 14th century style
SAINT CATHERINE OF ALEXANDRIA
Oak, with traces of polychromy
figure: 112cm., 44 1/8 in., base: 6cm., 2 3/8 in. 
Private Collection

Saint Catherine of Alexandria is, according to tradition, a Christian saint and virgin, who was martyred in the early 4th century at the hands of the pagan emperor Maxentius. According to her hagiography, she was both a princess and a noted scholar, who became a Christian around the age of fourteen, and converted hundreds of people to Christianity. She was martyred around the age of 18. Over 1,100 years following her martyrdom, St. Joan of Arc identified Catherine as one of the Saints who appeared to her and counselled her.

The Eastern Orthodox Church venerates her as a Great Martyr, and celebrates her feast day on 24 or 25 November (depending on the local tradition). In the Catholic Church she is traditionally revered as one of the Fourteen Holy Helpers. In 1969 the Catholic Church removed her feast day from the General Roman Calendar;[4] however, she continued to be commemorated in the Roman Martyrology on 25 November. More

Attributed to Giovanni Marigliano, called Giovanni da Nola (1488–1558)
Italian, Naples, first half 16th century
VIRGIN OF THE ANNUNCIATION
gilt and polychromed wood
123cm., 48½in. 
Private Collection

This serene, contemplative, and rare, Virgin of the Annunciation can be attributed to the celebrated wood carver and sculptor Giovanni Marigliano, who operated in Naples and was responsible for many of the most important tomb monuments erected in the city in the first half of the 16th century. Marigliano was responsible for two important polychromed wood crib groups: those in San Domenico Maggiore (circa 1507) and Santa Maria del Parto (1524) in Naples. The latter group, in particular, represents a fruitful comparison with the present figure. Each of the figures kneel and bear the same calm, reverent, expressions, and so represent a direct compositional comparison. The linearity of the Virgin's drapery finds some of its strongest comparisons in later tomb sculpture by Marigliano. Note, for example, the kneeling Maria Osorio Pimentel, book held in her hands, from the double tomb monument to herself and her husband Pedro de Toledo in the church of San Giacomo degli Spagnoli, Naples (circa 1540-1546); Marigliano's crowning masterpiece. More

MARIGLIANO, Giovanni, (b. ca. 1488, Nola, d. 1558, Napoli), Italian wood-carver and sculptor. He trained in Naples under Pietro Belverte (d. 1513), executing polychromed wooden reliefs and crib figures. In 1508 he and Belverte assisted Tommaso Malvito on a frame for an image of St Anne and on doors at the Ospizio dell'Annunziata, Naples. Marigliano continued to work almost exclusively in Naples. His first independent commissions were the frame for the Virgin and Child by Antonio da Rimpacta, and the altar frame for Bartolommeo de Lino's Virgin and Saints. Around 1524 he carved crib figures for Santa Maria del Parto, Naples, and collaborated on the marble tomb of the Viceroy of Sicily Don Ramón de Cardona.

In 1532 he completed the altar of the Madonna del soccorso, a pendant to another altar by Girolamo da Santacroce. Both follow earlier Tuscan models, and the juxtaposition highlights Marigliano's awkward figure designs and his dependence on other sculptors' formulae. His altar of the Madonna della neve represents a more classical solution, as did his monument to Guido Fieramosca. These precede the bizarre designs for the three tombs of the brothers Sigismondo, Ascanio and Jacopo Sanseverino (1539-46; Naples, Santi Severino e Sossio), who were poisoned (1516) by their uncle. His work combines Lombard influences with Giovanni Angelo Montorsoli's classical style, derived from Michelangelo, detectable also in such later marble figures as the St Peter in the Cappella Caracciolo). Marigliano's last surviving sculpture, the Deposition (c. 1549; Naples, Santa Maria delle Grazie a Caponapoli), is a highly emotive scene. More

Italian, 16th Century
VIRGIN AND CHILD
Gilt and polychromed wood
153cm. 60 1/4 in.
Private Collection

Italian, Siena, second half 15th century
VIRGIN AND CHILD
Gilt and polychromed wood
106cm., 41 3/4 in. 
Private Collection

North Italian, 15th century style
VIRGIN AND CHILD ENTHRONED
Gilt and polychromed pine
98cm., 38 5/8 in.
Private Collection
North Italian, late 14th/ early 15th century
RELIEF WITH THE VIRGIN AND CHILD ENTHRONED
Polychromed wood, on a metal stand
95.5cm., 37 5/8 in. 
Private Collection

North Italian, circa 1400
VIRGIN AND CHILD ENTHRONED
Polychromed stucco, on a wood base
128cm., 50 3/8 in.
Private Collection

Italian, Siena, late 14th century
VIRGIN AND CHILD ENTHRONED
Gilt and polychromed wood
128cm., 50 3/8 in. 
Private Collection

This  Virgin and Child enthroned breaks with the rigid Sedes Sapientiae type by introducing a new dynamism and intimacy to the interaction between the Virgin and Her infant. The group has in the past been attributed to the early 14th-century Sienese masters Ramo di Paganello (active circa 1281-1320) and Agostino di Giovanni (circa 1285-1347). More
Spanish, 15th century style
MALE SAINT HOLDING A BOOK
Polychromed walnut
114cm., 44 3/8 in
Private Collection




Acknowledgement: Sotheby'sSotheby's


Images are copyright of their respective owners, assignees or others

18 Paintings, Stories from the Bible, by the Old Masters, with footnotes #37

Rosso Fiorentino
Pietà, c. 1537 - 1540
Oil on wood transferred to canvas
125 x 159 cm
Private Collection

The Pietà is a subject in Christian art depicting the Virgin Mary cradling the dead body of Jesus, most often found in sculpture. As such, it is a particular form of the Lamentation of Christ, a scene from the Passion of Christ found in cycles of the Life of Christ. When Christ and the Virgin are surrounded by other figures from the New Testament, the subject is strictly called a Lamentation in English, although Pietà is often used for this as well, and is the normal term in Italian. More

Giovanni Battista di Jacopo (8 March 1495 – 14 November 1540), known as Rosso Fiorentino (meaning "red Florentine" in Italian), or Il Rosso, was an Italian Mannerist painter, in oil and fresco, belonging to the Florentine school.

Born in Florence with the red hair that gave him his nickname, Rosso first trained in the studio of Andrea del Sarto alongside his contemporary, Pontormo. In late 1523, Rosso moved to Rome, where he was exposed to the works of Michelangelo, Raphael, and other Renaissance artists, resulting in the realignment of his artistic style.

Fleeing Rome after the Sacking of 1527, Rosso eventually went to France where he secured a position at the court of Francis I in 1530, remaining there until his death. Together with Francesco Primaticcio, Rosso was one of the leading artists to work at the Chateau Fontainebleau as part of the "First School of Fontainebleau", spending much of his life there. Following his death in 1540  Francesco Primaticcio took charge of the artistic direction at Fontainebleau.

Rosso's reputation, along those of other stylized late Renaissance Florentines, was long out of favour in comparison to other more naturalistic and graceful contemporaries, but has revived considerably in recent decades. That his masterpiece is in a small city, away from the tourist track, was a factor in this, especially before the arrival of photography. His poses are certainly contorted, and his figures often appear haggard and thin, but his work has considerable power. More

Pietro della Vecchia, VENICE OR VICENZA 1602/3 - 1678 VENICE
JOSEPH'S BROTHERS RETURNING HIS BLOODIED TUNIC TO THEIR FATHER
Oil on canvas
133 x 167 cm.; 52 1/4  x 65 3/4  in.
Private Collection

Joseph is an important figure in the Bible's Book of Genesis and also in the Quran as well as the Book of Mormon. Sold into slavery by his jealous brothers, he rose to become vizier, the second most powerful man in Egypt next to Pharaoh, where his presence and office caused Israel to leave Canaan and settle in Egypt. The composition of the story can be dated to the period between the 7th century BCE and the third quarter of the 5th century BCE, which is roughly the period to which scholars date the Book of Genesis.

Joseph's half-brothers were jealous of him; most of them plotted to kill him, with the exception of Reuben, who suggested to have Joseph thrown into an empty cistern, intending to rescue Joseph himself. Unaware of this secondary intention, the others obeyed his first. Upon imprisoning Joseph, the brothers saw a camel caravan carrying spices and perfumes to Egypt, and sold Joseph to these merchants. Thereafter the guilty brothers painted goat's blood on Joseph's coat  and showed it to Jacob, who therefore believed Joseph dead. More

Pietro della Vecchia (1602/03-1678), also known as Pietro Muttoni or Pietro della Vecchia Muttoni, was the son of a prominent Venetian family. His early works are deeply influenced by Carlo Saraceni and his student, which has led to the assumption that the painter may has initially been trained by them. After a possible short stay in Rome around 1621-22, he was active in the studio of Alessandro Varotari, called Padovanino, around 1625 and first familiarized with the masters of the Venetian Cinquecento, such as Titian and Giorgione. Many works by the artist can be still found in churches in Venice, as well as in important international collections, such as the Kunsthistorisches Museum in Vienna, the Louvre in Paris, the Gemäldegalerie in Dresden and the National Gallery in Dublin. More

Follower of Luca Giordano, called Fa Presto, NAPLES 1634 - 1705
THE PRESENTATION IN THE TEMPLE
Oil on canvas
40.8 x 51.2 cm.; 16 x 20 1/8  in.
Private Collection

The Presentation of Jesus at the Temple, according to the gospel, Mary and Joseph took the Infant Jesus to the Temple in Jerusalem forty days after his birth to complete Mary's ritual purification after childbirth, and to perform the redemption of the firstborn son. Luke explicitly says that Joseph and Mary take the option provided for poor people (those who could not afford a lamb), sacrificing "a pair of turtledoves, or two young pigeons." Leviticus indicates that this event should take place forty days after birth for a male child, hence the Presentation is celebrated forty days after Christmas. More

Luca Giordano (18 October 1634 – 12 January 1705) was an Italian late Baroque painter and printmaker in etching. Fluent and decorative, he worked successfully in Naples and Rome, Florence and Venice, before spending a decade in Spain.

Born in Naples, Giordano was the son of the painter Antonio Giordano. In around 1650 he was apprenticed to Ribera, and his early work was heavily influenced by his teacher. Like Ribera, he painted many half-length figures of philosophers, either imaginary portraits of specific figures, or generic types.

He acquired the nickname Luca fa presto, which translates into "Luca paints quickly." His speed, in design as well as handiwork, and his versatility, which enabled him to imitate other painters deceptively, earned for him two other epithets, "The Thunderbolt" (Fulmine) and "The Proteus" of painting.

Following a period studying in Rome, Parma and Venice, Giordano developed an elaborate Baroque style fusing Venetian and Roman Influences. His mature work combines the ornamental pomp of Paul Veronese with the lively complex schemes, the "grand manner", of Pietro da Cortona. He is also noted for his lively and showy use of colour. More

Studio of Johann Carl Loth, MUNICH 1632 - 1698 VENICE
THE RETURN OF THE PRODIGAL SON
Oil on canvas
130 x 167.5 cm.; 51 1/8  x 66 in.
Private Collection

The Parable of the Prodigal Son is one of the parables of Jesus Christ, which he shares it with his disciples, the Pharisees and others.

In the story, a father has two sons. The younger son asks for his inheritance and after wasting his fortune, becomes destitute. He returns home with the intention of begging his father to be made one of his hired servants, expecting his relationship with his father is likely severed. The father welcomes him back and celebrates his return. The older son refuses to participate. The father reminds the older son that one day he will inherit everything. But, they should still celebrate the return of the younger son because he was lost and is now found. More

Johann Carl Loth (1632 – 6 October 1698) was a German Baroque painter, born in Munich but active most of his life in Venice. He was the son and pupil of Johann Ulrich Loth (1590–1662) and was possibly influenced by Giovan Battista Langetti. He was commissioned to paint for the emperor Leopold I in Vienna. He worked together with Pietro Liberi in Venice, where he was during the years 1663-1698. His brother Franz Loth was also a painter in Venice and Germany. More

Follower of Francesco Ruschi
THE BANISHMENT OF HAGAR AND ISHMAEL
Oil on canvas
152.1 x 175.7 cm.; 60 x 69 1/4  in.
Private Collection

Hagar is a biblical person in the Book of Genesis Chapter 16. She was an Egyptian handmaid of Sarah, who gave her to Abraham "to wife" to bear a child. The product of the union was Abraham's firstborn, Ishmael, the progenitor of the Ishmaelites.
After Sarah gave birth to Isaac, and the tension between the women returned. At a celebration after Isaac was weaned, Sarah found the teenage Ishmael mocking her son, and demanded that Abraham send Hagar and her son away. She declared that Ishmael would not share in Isaac's inheritance. Abraham was greatly distressed but God told Abraham to do as his wife commanded because God's promise would be carried out through both Isaac and Ishmael.
The name Hagar originates from the Book of Genesis, and is only alluded to in the Qur'an. She is considered Abraham's second wife in the Islamic faith and acknowledged in all Abrahamic faiths. In mainstream Christianity, she is considered a concubine to Abraham. More

Francesco Ruschi was an Italian painter born in Rome around 1610. He studied in Rome under Giuseppe Cesari, Francesco Albani and Pietro da Cortona. His work also shows the influence of Caravaggio. He settled in Venice before 1629. He became a friend of the writer Giovan Francesco Loredan, for whom he drew the cover pages of several works. He moved to Treviso from 1656, and died there in 1661. More

Valentin de Boulogne
Denial of Saint Peter, (ca. 1615–17)
Oil on canvas
67 1/2 × 94 7/8 inches
Fondazione di Studi di Storia dell’Arte Roberto Longhi, Florence

The Denial of Peter refers to three acts of denial of Jesus by the Apostle Peter as described in all four Gospels of the New Testament.

All four Canonical Gospels state that during Jesus' Last Supper with his disciples, he predicted that Peter would deny knowledge of him, stating that Peter would disown him before the rooster crowed the next morning. Following the arrest of Jesus Peter denied knowing him thrice, but after the third denial, heard the rooster crow and recalled the prediction as Jesus turned to look at him. Peter then began to cry bitterly. This final incident is known as the Repentance of Peter.

The emotional turmoil and turbulent emotions behind Peter's denial and later repentance have been the subject of major works of art for centuries. Examples include Caravaggio's Denial of Saint Peter, which is now at the Metropolitan Museum of Art. More

Valentin de Boulogne (before 3 January 1591 – 19 August 1632), sometimes referred to as Le Valentin, was a French painter in the tenebrist style. Though little is known of Valentin de Boulogne’s early life, he is considered one of most devoted French followers of Caravaggio. De Boulogne joined a society of foreign artists while in Rome known as Bentvueghels, or “Birds of a Feather.” He also had a close working relationship with Nicolas Poussin, with whom he was frequently compared. Though de Boulogne painted biblical scenes, allegorical images, and portraits, he is best remembered for his genre scenes of merrymaking characters enjoying music, drinks, and games in taverns. These were in part inspired by Bartolomeo Manfredi’s genre paintings, and rendered with Caravaggesque chiaroscuro. Anecdotes report that de Boulogne passed away at his early age after contracting a fever after a night carousing at a tavern. More

Valentin de Boulogne, (before 3 January 1591 – 19 August 1632),
Martyrdom of Saints Processus and Martinian, c. 1629
Oil on canvas
118 7/8 x 75 9/16 inches
Vatican Pinoteca, Rome

Martinian and Processus were Christian martyrs of ancient Rome. Neither the years they lived nor the circumstances of their deaths are known; although they are currently buried in St. Peter's Basilica in Rome.

According to legend, Martinian and Processus were imperial soldiers assigned as the warders of Saint Peter and Saint Paul in the Mamertine Prison.[5] The apostles converted their jailers after a spring flowed miraculously in the prison. Peter then baptized them in the miraculous waters. By order of the emperor Nero, the guards were then arrested, tortured and beheaded. After their martyrdom with Paul, a sympathizer called Lucina buried them in her own cemetery. More

Valentin de Boulogne (before 3 January 1591 – 19 August 1632), see above

Vincente Macip (known in Valencia towards 1490-1550) 
Descent from the Cross 
pine panel altarpiece element 
96 x 72 cm
Private Collection

By its shape and dimensions this panel comes from an altarpiece whose other elements have not yet been found. 

The Descent from the Cross, or Deposition of Christ, is the scene, as depicted in art, from the Gospels' accounts of Joseph of Arimathea and Nicodemus taking Christ down from the cross after his crucifixion. In Byzantine art the topic became popular in the 9th century, and in the West from the 10th century. The Descent from the Cross is the 13th Station of the Cross.

Other figures not mentioned in the Gospels who are often included in depictions of this subject include St. John the Evangelist, who is sometimes depicted supporting a fainting Mary, and Mary Magdalene. The Gospels mention an undefined number of women as watching the crucifixion, including the Three Marys and Mary Salome.. More

Vicente Masip (also Vicente Macip) (Andilla, 1475 - Valencia, 1545) was a Spanish painter of the Renaissance period. His son was Juan Vicente Masip, and his grandson was named Vicente Masip Comes, also known as Vicent de Joanes.

Born in Andilla, he was influenced on the Quattrocento style. He is considered a Quattrocento painter. One of his early works was the altarpiece of Porta-Coeli in the Museu de Belles Arts de València. He was also responsible for the old high altar of the Segorbe Cathedral between 1529 and 1532 He is also attributed the altarpiece of the Virgin of the Remedy of the Church of San Bartolomé de Benicarlo. It is a painting of the Virgin and Child Enthroned surrounded by various saints.

Vincente Macip (known in Valencia towards 1490-1550) 
Title Martyrdom of St Agnes, circa 1540 and circa 1545
Oil on panel
58 centímetros de diámetor
Prado Museum

The Museo del Prado owns two of his paintings representing the Visitation and the Martyrdom of St. Agnes, executed for the chapel of St. Thomas of Villanova in the convent of San Julián de Valencia. Somewhat overshadowed by the fame of his son who had more of an emotional style, but certainly better equipped, experts doubt the attribution of some works between parent and child, especially those who had been attributed the father. More

Agnes of Rome (c. 291 – c. 304) was a popular saint about whom little is known, Agnes is said to have been a beautiful, wealthy Roman maiden who had, in childhood, dedicated herself to God. Some say that a rejected suitor betrayed her to authorities; others say that she was asked at 13 to sacrifice to the gods and marry, both of which she refused. Legends tell of her being thrown into a brothel, where her purity was miraculously preserved. Having escaped that fate, she was martyred. In the IV Century, Constantia, the daughter of Constantine, built a basilica on the site of her tomb. St. Ambrose wrote about Agnes in De virginitate, and Damasus I wrote an epitaph for her. Prudentius composed a hymn in her honor. Her emblem in art is the lamb because of the similarity between her name and the Latin word for lamb, agnus. More

Martin Schongauer, (c. 1445, Colmar – 2 February 1491, Breisach) 
The Beheading of Saint Catherine 
Prepared panel. 
22,5 x 19,5cm - 8 7/8 x 7 11/16 IN. 
Private Collection

Saint Catherine of Alexandria is, according to tradition, a Christian saint and virgin, who was martyred in the early 4th century at the hands of the pagan emperor Maxentius. According to her hagiography, she was both a princess and a noted scholar, who became a Christian around the age of fourteen, and converted hundreds of people to Christianity. She was martyred around the age of 18. Over 1,100 years following her martyrdom, St. Joan of Arc identified Catherine as one of the Saints who appeared to her and counselled her.

The Eastern Orthodox Church venerates her as a Great Martyr, and celebrates her feast day on 24 or 25 November (depending on the local tradition). In the Catholic Church she is traditionally revered as one of the Fourteen Holy Helpers. In 1969 the Catholic Church removed her feast day from the General Roman Calendar;[4] however, she continued to be commemorated in the Roman Martyrology on 25 November. More

Martin Schongauer (c. 1445, Colmar – 2 February 1491, Breisach), known in Italy as Bel Martino or Martino d'Anversa, was a German engraver and painter. He was the most important German printmaker before Albrecht Dürer.

Schongauer was born in about 1440 in Colmar, Alsace, probably the third of the four sons of Caspar Schongauer, a goldsmith from Augsburg who taught his son the art of engraving. Colmar is now in France but was then part of the Holy Roman Empire. He may well have been trained by Master E. S. The art historian A. Hyatt Mayor saw both their individual styles in different parts of a single engraving, and all the works with Schongauer's M†S monogram show a fully developed style. Schongauer established at Colmar a very important school of engraving, out of which grew the "Little Masters" of the succeeding generation, and a large group of Nuremberg artists. More

Antwerp School circa 1525, circle of Barend van Orley 
Scenes from the Passion of Christ 
Oak panels, three boards
66 x 85,5cm - 26 X 33 IN 11/16. 
Private Collection

In Christianity, the Passion (from Late Latin: passionem "suffering, enduring") is the short final period in the life of Jesus covering his entrance visit to Jerusalem and leading to his crucifixion on Mount Calvary, defining the climactic event central to Christian doctrine of Salvation History.

The word passion has since taken on a more general application and now may also apply to accounts of the suffering and death of Christian martyrs, sometimes using the Latin form passio.  More

Bernard van Orley (between 1487 and 1491 – 6 January 1541), , was a leading artist in Dutch and Flemish Renaissance painting, though he was at least as active as a leading designer of Brussels tapestry and, at the end of his life, stained glass. Although he never visited Italy, he belongs to the group of Italianizing Flemish painters called the Romanists, who were influenced by Italian Renaissance painting, in his case especially by Raphael.

He was born and died in Brussels, and was the court artist of the Habsburg rulers, and "served as a sort of commissioner of the arts for the Brussels town council". He was extremely productive, concentrating on the design of his works, and leaving their actual execution largely to others in the case of painting. 

Accordingly, his many surviving works (somewhat depleted in number by Reformation iconoclasm) vary considerably in quality. His paintings are generally either religious subjects or portraits, these mostly of Habsburgs repeated in several versions by the workshop, with few mythological subjects. More

ITALIAN school of the seventeenth century, after Daniele da Volterra 
Descent from the Cross 
Oil on Canvas 
128 X 91cm - 50 3/8 X 35 7/8 IN
Private Collection


The Descent from the Cross, or Deposition of Christ, see above

Daniele Ricciarelli (c. 1509 – 4 April 1566), better known as Daniele da Volterra, see below.

Daniele da Volterra (1509–1566)
The Deposition/ Descent from the Cross , c. 1545
After its restoration in 2004
Santissima Trinità dei Monti, titular church in Rome

Daniele da Volterra (1509–1566)
The Deposition/ Descent from the Cross , c. 1545
Detail, Before and After its restoration in 2004


The Descent from the Cross, after the painting by Daniele da Volterra in Sta Trinità dei Monti, Rome; in outline. 1811
Engraving
Height: 220 millimetres, Width: 138 millimetres


The Descent from the Cross, or Deposition of Christ, see above

Daniele Ricciarelli (c. 1509 – 4 April 1566), better known as Daniele da Volterra, was a Mannerist Italian painter and sculptor.

Daniele Ricciarelli was born in Volterra (in today's Tuscany). As a boy, he initially studied with the Sienese artists. He left to Rome in 1535, and helped paint the frescoes in the Palazzo Massimo alle Colonne.

From 1538 to 1541 he helped Perin with the painting of frescoes in the villa of Cardinal Trivuzio at Salone. He was commissioned the painting of a frieze in the main salon of the Palazzo Massimo alle Colonne, with the life of Fabius Maximus. In Rotman he also started working in the circle of Michelangelo and befriended him. Michelangelo used his influence with Pope Paul III to secure Daniele commissions and the post of superintendent of the works of the Vatican, a position he retained until the Pope's death. Michelangelo also provided him with sketches on which Daniele based some of his paintings, especially his series of frescoes in the Orsini chapel in the Trinity College.

Later Daniele was commissioned by Paul III to complete the decoration of the Sala Regia. On the death of the pope in 1549 he lost his position as superintendent and the pension to which it entitled him. He then devoted himself chiefly to sculpture.

He died in Rome in 1566. More

Francesco Raibolini, called Francia (Bologna 1440-1517) 
The Virgin and Child in a landscape 
Poplar panel, blackened, strengthened 
63 x 46 cm - 24 13/16 X 18 1/8 IN
Private Collection

Here, the artist has endeavored to represent the Virgin in a setting of great simplicity, the landscape being animated by a few trees whose frail trunks punctuate the background. She introduces the Child before us, supporting him gently, while he blesses the world with his right hand. The serenity that emanates from the faces is accentuated by the delicacy of the pattern and the colors: the harmony of the blues and greens that is also found in the mantle of the Virgin is raised only by the red of the dress and by a little Gold for embroidery. More

Francesco Raibolini (1447 – January 5, 1517), called Francia, was an Italian painter, goldsmith, and medallist from Bologna, who was also director of the city mint.

He may have trained with Marco Zoppo and was first mentioned as a painter in 1486. His earliest known work is the Felicini Madonna, which is signed and dated 1494. He worked in partnership with Lorenzo Costa, and was influenced by Ercole de' Roberti's and Costa's style, until 1506, when Francia became a court painter in Mantua, after which time he was influenced more by Perugino and Raphael. He himself trained Marcantonio Raimondi and several other artists; he produced niellos, in which Raimondi first learnt to engrave, soon excelling his master, according to Vasari. Raphael's Santa Cecilia is supposed to have produced such a feeling of inferiority in Francia that it caused him to die of depression. However, as his friendship with Raphael is now well-known, this story has been discredited.

He died in Bologna. His sons Giacomo Francia and Giulio Francia were also artists. Among his works is a Baptism of Christ in Lisbon. More

Andrea Meldolla, (c. 1510/1515–1563) 
Lamentation over the Dead Christ 
Oil on Canvas 
130 X 118cm - 51 1/8 X 46 1/2 IN
Private Collection

Schiavone represented the lament over the body of Christ several times. His starting point is an unfinished print of Parmesan. The main difference is that Saint John becomes a Mary Magdalene adjusting her veil on the right. The yellow Christ cloth in the version of the Coin collection is here blue. More

The Lamentation of Christ is a very common subject in Christian art from the High Middle Ages to the Baroque. After Jesus was crucified, his body was removed from the cross and his friends mourned over his body. This event has been depicted by many different artists.

Lamentation works are very often included in cycles of the Life of Christ, and also form the subject of many individual works. One specific type of Lamentation depicts only Jesus' mother Mary cradling his body. These are known as Pietà (Italian for "pity") More

Andrea Meldolla (Croatian: Andrija Medulić), also known as Andrea Schiavone or Andrea Lo Schiavone (c. 1510/1515–1563) was an Italian Renaissance painter and etcher, born in present-day Croatia, active mainly in the city of Venice.

Meldolla was born in the Venetian-ruled city of Zara, the son of a garrison commander of a post. His family was originally from the small town of Meldola, close to the city of Forlì in Romagna.

He trained either in Zara or in Venice. There are unproven claims that he trained with Bonifazio de Pitati. He worked in fresco, panel painting, and etching (teaching himself to etch by working initially from drawings by Parmigianino). By 1540, he was well enough established in Venice that Giorgio Vasari commissioned him a large battle picture. Although initially much influenced by Parmigianino and Italian Mannerism, "he was also a strikingly daring exponent of Venetian painting techniques", and ultimately combined both in his works, influencing Titian, Tintoretto, and Jacopo Bassano among others. His works "shocked some contemporaries and stimulated others". By the 1550s, he had achieved a new synthesis.

His etchings weres similarly innovative. His technique was unlike that of any contemporary: unsystematically he used dense webs of light, fine, multidirectional hatching to create a tonal continuum embracing form, light, shadow, and air. More

Attribué à Pietro Testa (1611–1650) 
La Flagellation/ The Flagellation
Oil on Canvas 
130 X 118cm - 51 1/8 X 46 1/2 IN
Private Collection

The Flagellation of Christ, sometimes known as Christ at the Column or the Scourging at the Pillar, is a scene from the Passion of Christ very frequently shown in Christian art, in cycles of the Passion or the larger subject of the Life of Christ. It is the fourth station of the modern alternate Stations of the Cross, and a Sorrowful Mystery of the Rosary. The column to which Christ is normally tied, and the rope, scourge, whip or birch are elements in the Arma Christi. The Basilica di Santa Prassede in Rome, claimed to possess the original column. More

Pietro Testa (1611–1650) was an Italian High Baroque artist, best known as a printmaker and draftsman, who was active in Rome. Born in Lucca, Testa moved to Rome early in life. He was friends with Nicolas Poussin and Francesco Mola.

 His early prints, from the 1630s, were often religious and achieve very delicate effects of light; his later ones became harder and more austere in stylei. His prints were successful and frequently copied.

Between 1638 and 1644, Testa completed a set of complex and highly detailed etchings on the theme of The Seasons, which served as an expression of his interest in Platonic philosophy. 

Testa was influenced by Leonardo da Vinci to favor direct observation of natural phenomena, a fact that may have limited his productivity as an artist. Testa was standing on a Tiber riverbank, "drawing and observing some reflections of the rainbow in the water," when he fell in and drowned. More

Pieter Brueghel the Elder (1526/1530–1569)
The Census at Bethlehem, c. 1566
Oil on oak
Height: 116 cm (45.7 in). Width: 164 cm (64.6 in).
Royal Museums of Fine Arts of Belgium

Caesar Augustus issued a decree that a census should be taken of the entire Roman world; requiring that all people return to the lands of their origin. In Joseph's case, that was Bethlehem, the city of David. More

Pieter Bruegel (also Brueghel) the Elder (c. 1525 – 9 September 1569) was a Netherlandish Renaissance painter and printmaker from Brabant, known for his landscapes and peasant scenes. He is sometimes referred to as the "Peasant Bruegel". From 1559, he dropped the 'h' from his name and signed his paintings as Bruegel.

Bruegel was born in Breda, and entered the Antwerp painters' guild in 1551, it is inferred that he was born between 1525 and 1530. His master was the Antwerp painter Pieter Coecke van Aelst, whose daughter Maria Bruegel married in 1563. 

Bruegel became a free master in the Guild of Saint Luke of Antwerp. In 1552 Bruegel was assigned to paint the rear of two wings of a triptych in Mechelen; the middle panel was painted by Pieter Balten. Between 1552 and 1553 Bruegel traveled to Italy, probably by way of France. He visited Rome, where he met the miniaturist Giulio Clovio, whose will of 1578 lists three paintings by Bruegel. About 1555 Bruegel returned to Antwerp by way of the Alps, which resulted in a number of exquisite drawings of mountain landscapes. These sketches, which form the basis for many of his later paintings, are not records of actual places but "composites" made in order to investigate the organic life of forms in nature.

He received the nickname "Peasant Bruegel" or "Bruegel the Peasant" for his practice of dressing up like a peasant in order to socialize at weddings and other celebrations, thereby gaining inspiration and authentic details for his genre paintings. He died in Brussels on 9 September 1569 and was buried in the Kapellekerk. More




Acknowledgement: Sotheby'sTAJAN

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